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Kingdom of Bulgaria
Царство България - Tsarstvo Balgariya
The Kingdom of Bulgaria or the Tsardom of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Царство България, Tsarstvo Balgariya; also called Third Bulgarian Tsardom to distinguish it from the First Bulgarian Tsardom and the Second Bulgarian Tsardom) was a constitutional monarchy, created on 22 September 1908 (old style), as а result of an elevation of the Bulgarian state to independendent kingdom from tributary principality. This move was taken by Ferdinand who was crowned a Tsar at the declaration of independence, mainly taken for military plans and more accurately for seeking options for unification of all lands in the Balkans populated with ethnic Bulgarian majority, seized from Bulgaria and given to the Ottoman Empire with the Treaty of Berlin.
The state itself was one of the most actively warring as a proportion of its existence for which was referred to as "the Balkan Prussia", for several years Bulgaria mobilized army of more than 1 million people from its population of about 5 million and in the next decade (1910-20) it engaged in three wars - the First, the Second Balkan War and the First World War, but lost both the Balkan and the World War. After this the Bulgarian army was forbidden to exist by the winning side of the World War and was actually disbanded and all plans for national unification of the Bulgarian lands failed.
After less than two decades Bulgaria was again warring for national unification in the Second World War, but was fighting again on the losing side, which was a fourth lost war. In 1946, the monarchy was abolished, its final Tsar was sent into exile and the Kingdom was replaced by a People's Republic. Although rarely, it is sometimes referred to as the Third Bulgarian Empire, as in the Middle Ages the term Tsardom meant an Empire. However, the Third Bulgarian state was internationally recognized as a Kingdom.
Principality of Bulgaria
The Principality of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Княжество България, Knyazhestvo Balgariya) was a constitutional monarchy, vassal of the Ottoman Empire, created at the Treaty of San Stefano on 3 March 1878 (old style) as a result of Russian victory in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The Тreaty of San Stefano between the Russian Empire and the Porte (the Ottoman government) had provided a significantly large Bulgarian territory, encompassing nearly all ethnic Bulgarians in the Balkans and including most of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia, the coastline on both the Black Sea, and the Aegean Sea on the Mediterranean. The treaty was said to be preliminary and was pending for unavoidable revision by the Western great powers, the United Kingdom and Austria-Hungary feared the establishment of a large Russian client state in the Balkans which might have tipped influential balance on matters concerning the Mediterranean. As such, the great powers were not willing to accede and the revision of the great powers came in the same 1878 with the Treaty of Berlin, which took effect only 4 months later than 3 March.
The Treaty of Berlin ruined the Bulgarian principality and divided its territory into six parts: 1) the Principality of Bulgaria remaining only in Moesia, 2) an autonomous Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia was created in the northern part of Thrace, 3) the southern part of Thrace was given to the Ottoman Empire, 4) Macedonia, the entire was given to the Ottoman Empire, 5 and 6) two more smaller parts were given to Serbia and Romania. By 1885, Eastern Rumelia succeeded to became again part of the principality after a bloodless revolution. Bulgaria's de facto control of its principality and the surrounding region made it a successor of the Second Bulgarian Empire and the Bulgarian state after the Liberation from Ottoman rule is referred to as the Third Bulgarian State. The Principality of Bulgaria ended on 22 September 1908 (old style), when Bulgaria officially declared independence rejecting all sorts of Ottoman suzerainty and dependence, elevating the principality to Kingdom of Bulgaria.
Royal House of Bulgaria - Wettin
The current Bulgarian royal family is a line of the Kohary branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha - Wettin, which ruled Bulgaria from 1887 to 1946. The House of Wettin is a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors (Kurfürsten) and kings that once ruled the area of today's German states of Saxony, the Saxon part of Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia for more than 800 years as well as holding at times the kingship of Poland. Agnates of the House of Wettin have, at various times, ascended the thrones of Great Britain, Portugal, Bulgaria, Poland, Saxony, and Belgium; of these, only the British and Belgian lines retain their thrones today. The oldest member of the House of Wettin who is known for certain was Thiedericus (died 982), who was probably based in the Liesgau (located at the western edge of the Harz). Around 1000, as part of the German conquest of Slavic territory, the family acquired Wettin Castle, after which they named themselves. 
Wettin Castle is located in Wettin in the Hosgau on the Saale River. Around 1030, the Wettin family received the Eastern March as a fief. The prominence of the Wettin family in the Slavic marches caused Emperor Henry IV to invest them with the March of Meissen as a fief in 1089. The family advanced over the course of the Middle Ages: in 1263 they inherited the landgraviate of Thuringia (though without Hesse), and in 1423 they were invested with the Duchy of Saxony, centred at Wittenberg,thus becoming one of the prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire.  
The family divided into two ruling branches in 1485 when the sons of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony divided the territories hitherto ruled jointly. The elder son Ernest, who had succeeded his father as Prince-elector, received the territories assigned to the Elector (Electoral Saxony) and Thuringia, while his younger brother Albert obtained the March of Meissen, which he ruled from Dresden. As Albert ruled under the title of "Duke of Saxony", his possessions were also known as Ducal Saxony. 

The older, Ernestine branch remained predominant until 1547 and played an important role in the beginnings of the Protestant Reformation. Their predominance ended in the Schmalkaldic War, which pitted the Protestant Schmalkaldic League against Emperor Charles V. Although itself Protestant, the Albertine branch rallied to the Empire's cause; Charles V rewarded them by forcing the Ernestines to sign away their rights to the Electoral title and lands to the Albertines.


The Ernestine line was thereafter restricted to Thuringia, and its dynastic unity swiftly crumbled. The Albertine Wettin maintained most of the territorial integrity of Saxony, preserving it as a significant power in the region, and using small appanage fiefs for their cadet branches, few of which survived for significant lengths of time. The Ernestine Wettin, on the other hand, repeatedly subdivided their territory, creating an intricate patchwork of small duchies and counties in Thuringia.


The junior Albertine branch ruled as Electors (1547-1806) and Kings of Saxony (1806-1918) and also played a role in Polish history: two Wettin were Kings of Poland (between 1697-1763) and a third ruled the Duchy of Warsaw (1807-1814) as a satellite of Napoleon. After the Napoleonic Wars, the Albertine branch lost about 40% of its lands, including the old Electoral Saxony, to Prussia, restricting it to a territory coextensive with the modern Saxony.

Line of Succession to the Bulgarian Throne

The Bulgarian monarchy was abolished in 1946. The last reigning monarch was HM Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria, who is now the currect head of the Bulgarian Royal Family. The law of succession of the family is agnatic primogeniture. Thus therefore, only males can succeed Simeon II, leading to the theoretical order of succession to the Bulgarian throne:

  1. HRH Kardam, Prince of Turnovo, Duke of Saxony(born 2 December 1962)
  2. HRH Prince Boris of Bulgaria, Duke of Saxony (born 10 October 1997)
  3. HRH Prince Beltran of Bulgaria, Duke of Saxony (born 23 March 1999)
  4. HRH Kyril, Prince of Preslav, Duke of Saxony (born 11 July 1964)
  5. HRH Prince Tassilo of Bulgaria, Duke of Saxony (born 20 January 2002)
  6. HRH Kubrat, Prince of Panagyurishte, Duke of Saxony (born 5 November 1965)
  7. HRH Prince Mirko of Bulgaria, Duke of Saxony (born 26 April 1995)
  8. HRH Prince Lukás of Bulgaria, Duke of Saxony (born 15 July 1997)
  9. HRH Prince Tirso of Bulgaria, Duke of Saxony (born 3 June 2002)
  10. HRH Konstantin-Assen, Prince of Vidin, Duke of Saxony (born 5 December 1967)
  11. HRH Prince Umberto of Bulgaria, Duke of Saxony (born 20 November 1999) 


Sovereigns of Bulgaria - 1878-1946

Principality of Bulgaria and Kingdom of Bulgaria - 1878-1946

House of Battenberg
Battenburg.jpg Prince Alexander I 29 April 1879 - 7 September 1886 Resigned due to Russian pressure. Died on 23 October 1893 in Graz.
House of Wettin
Ferdinand of Bulgaria.jpg Prince/King (Tsar) Ferdinand I 7 July 1887 - 3 October 1918 Became Tsar (internationally recognized as King) after the official proclamation of independence on 22 September 1908. Abdicated on 3 October 1918 after the defeat in World War I. Died on 10 September 1948 in Coburg.
Boris3bulgaria1894.jpg King (Tsar) Boris III 3 October 1918 - 28 August 1943 Died on 28 August 1943 in unclear circumstances.
Simeon Vtori Popovo crop.jpg King (Tsar) Simeon II 28 August 1943 - 15 September 1946 Monarchy abolished by the Communists. He served as the 47th Prime Minister of Bulgaria between 24 July 2001 and 17 August 2005.
 Family Titles and Styles of the Royal House

The members of this family bear the titles Prince or Princess of Bulgaria, Duke or Duchess of Saxony, together with the formal appellation of His or Her Royal Highness.
The Genealogy of The Royal House
FERDINAND Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria Pr of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, b.Vienna 26 Feb 1861, d.Coburg 10 Sep 1948, was elected Prince of Bulgaria 7 Jul 1887 and proclaimed himself King (Tsar) of the Bulgarians 5 Oct 1908; he abdicated on 3 Oct 1918; he m.1st Villa Pianore 20 Apr 1893 Marie Louise Pss of Bourbon-Parma (Rome 17 Jan 1870-Sofia 31 Jan 1899); m.2d (Catholic) Coburg 28 Feb 1908 (Prot.) Schloß Osterstein 1 Mar 1908 Eleonore Pss Reuss (Trebschen 22 Aug 1860-Euxinograd 12 Sep 1917)

1a) BORIS III Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver, King of the Bulgarians (Sofia 30 Jan 1894-Sofia 28 Aug 1943); m.Assisi 25 Oct 1930 Giovanna Pss of Savoy (Rome 13 Nov 1907-Estoril 26 Feb 2000)
1b) Maria Luisa, b.Sofia 13 Jan 1933; m.1st (civ) Amorbach 14 Feb 1957 (rel) Cannes 20 Feb 1957 (div 1968) Karl Pr zu Leiningen (Coburg 2 Jan 1928-Vered Hagalil, Israel 28 Sep 1990); m.2d Toronto, Ontario 16 Nov 1969 Bronislaw Chrobok (b.Kattowitz 27 Aug 1933)
2b) SIMEON II, King of the Bulgarians from the death of his father until he was forced into exile in 1946; b.Sofia 16 Jun 1937; m.(civ) Lausanne 20 Jan 1962 (rel) Vevey 21 Jan 1962 Margarita Gómez-Acebo y Cejuela (b.Madrid 6 Jan 1935)

1c) Kardam, Pr of Tirnovo, b.Madrid 2 Dec 1962; m.Madrid 11 Jul 1996 Miriam Ungria y López (b.Madrid 2 Sep 1963)

1d) Boris, b.Madrid 10 Oct 1997

2d) Beltran, b.Madrid 23 Mar 1999

2c) Kyrill, Pr of Preslav, b.Madrid 11 Jul 1964; m.Palma de Mallorca 15 Sep 1989 Rosario Nadal y Fuster-Puigdorfila (b.Palma de Mallorca 22 Oct 1968)

1d) Mafalda-Cecilia Preslavska, b.London 27 Jul 1994

2d) Olimpia Preslavska, b.London 13 Dec 1995

3d) Tassilo, b.20 Jan 2002

3c) Kubrat, Pr of Panagjuriste, b.Madrid 5 Nov 1965; m.Madrid 2 Jul 1993 Carla-Maria Royo-Villanova y Urrestarazu (b.Madrid 3 Jan 1969)

1d) Mirko Panagjurski, b.Madrid 26 Apr 1995

2d) Lucas Panagjurski, b.Madrid 15 Jul 1997

3d) Tirso, b.Madrid 3 Jun 2002

4c) Konstantin-Assen, Pr of Vidin, b.Madrid 5 Dec 1967; m.Madrid 7 Jul 1994 Maria Garcia de la Rasilla y Gortazar (b.Madrid 13 May 1970)

1d) Umberto, b.20 Nov 1999

2d) Sofia, b.20 Nov 1999

5c) Kalina, b.Madrid 19 Jan 1972; m.Borovets, Bulgaria 26 Oct 2002 Antonio Muñoz Valcárcel (b.Sidi Ifni, Morocco 19 Nov 1958)

2a) Kyril Heinrich Franz Ludwig Anton Karl Philipp, Prince Regent 1943-4 (Sofia 17 Nov 1895-executed at Sofia 1 Feb 1945)

3a) Eudoxia Augusta Philippine Clementine Maria (Sofia 17 Jan 1898-Friedrichshafen 4 Oct 1985)

4a) Nadejda Clementine Maria Pia Majella (Sofia 30 Jan 1899-Stuttgart 15 Feb 1958); m.Bad-Margentheim 24 Jan 1924 Albrecht Eugen Duke of Württemberg (Stuttgart 8 Jan 1895-Schwäbisch-Gmünd 24 Jun 1954)

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