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Nobility of the World
Volume VIII - France

The nobility (French: la noblesse) in France, in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, had specific legal and financial rights, and prerogatives. The first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI after 1440 and included the right to hunt, the right to wear a sword and have a coat of arms, and, in principle, the right to possess a fief or seigneurie. Nobles were also granted an exemption from paying the taille, except for non-noble lands they might possess in some regions of France. Furthermore, certain ecclesiastic, civic, and military positions were reserved for nobles. These feudal privileges are often termed droits de feodalité dominante. However, the nobles also had responsibilities. Nobles were required to honor, serve, and counsel their king. They were often required to render military service (for example, the impôt du sang or "blood tax").


The title of "noble" was not indelible: certain activities could cause dérogeance, or loss of nobility. Most commercial and manual activities were strictly prohibited, although nobles could profit from their lands by operating mines and forges. With the exception of a few isolated cases, serfdom had ceased to exist in France by the 15th century. In Early Modern France, nobles nevertheless maintained a great number of seigneurial privileges over the free peasants that worked lands under their control. They could, for example, levy the "cens" tax, in which vassals were required to pay an annual tax on lands they leased or held. Nobles could also charge banalités for the right to use the lord's mills, ovens, or wine presses. Alternatively, nobles could demand a portion of vassals' harvests in return for permission to farm land he owned. Nobles also maintained certain judicial rights over their vassals, although with the rise of the modern state many of these privileges had passed to state control, leaving rural nobility only local police functions and judicial control over violation of their seigneurial rights.

In the 17th century this seigneurial system was established in France's North American possessions. In the political system of the Estates General, the nobility made up the Second Estate. This three-way division of the Estates should not be construed however as implying a division of Early Modern French society into three rigid orders (clergy, nobles, bourgeois and peasants) without the possibility of crossover. Figures differ on the actual number of nobles in France at the end of the 18th century. For the year 1789, the French historian François Bluche gives a figure of 140,000 nobles (9,000 noble families) and claims that around 5% of nobles claimed descent from feudal nobility before the 15th century. With a total population of 28 million, this would represent merely 0.5%. The historian Gordon Wright gives a figure of 300,000 nobles (of which 80,000 were from the traditional noblesse d'épée), or a little over 1% (proportionally one of smallest noble classes in Europe). which agrees with the estimation of the historian Jean de Viguerie.


The Forms of French Nobility

Despite common perceptions, the nobility in France was never an entirely closed class. Titles of nobility were generally hereditary, but many were awarded by the French monarchy for loyal service and many opportunities, both legal and illegal, were available for wealthy individuals to eventually gain titles of nobility for themselves or their descendants. From 1275 to 1578, non-nobles could acquire titles of nobility after three generations by buying lands or castles, providing that those fiefs had formerly belonged to a noble lord or the king and had been given in feudal homage. Non-nobles could not possess noble fiefs without paying a special tax on them (the franc-fief) to their liege-holder.

In the 16th century, families could acquire nobility by possessing certain important official or military charges, generally after two generations. Many titles of nobility were usurped by non-nobles in the Renaissance and early 17th century by purchasing fiefs and by "living nobly", i.e. by avoiding commercial and manual activity and by finding some way to be exempted from the official taille lists. In this way, the family would slowly come to be seen as noble. The king could grant titles of nobility to individuals by lettres patentes and convert their lands into noble fiefs or, for non-nobles possessing noble fiefs, to grant them possession of the noble titles. The king could also confer on noble fiefs special privileges, such as peerage for certain duchies. In general, these lettres needed to be officially registered with the Parlement. In the case of an unwilling Parlement, nobles were termed à brevet (as in duc à brevet or duke by certificate).


The Classes of French Nobility

French nobility is generally divided into the following classes:

Noblesse d'épée (nobility of the sword) or noblesse de race or noblesse ancienne: the traditional or old nobility.
Noblesse de chancellerie (nobility of the chancery): person made noble by holding certain high offices for the king.
Noblesse de lettres: person made noble by letters patent.
Noblesse de robe (nobility of the gown): person or family made noble by holding certain official charges, like masters of requests, treasurers, or Presidents of Parlement courts.
Noblesse de cloche (nobility of the "bell") or Noblesse échevinale/Noblesse scabinale: person or family made noble by being a mayor or alderman (échevin) or dean of guilds (municipal leader) in certain towns (such as Abbeville and Angers, Angoulême, Bourges, Lyon, Toulouse, Paris, Perpignan, and Poitiers).
Noblesse militaire (military nobility): person or family made noble by holding military offices, generally after two or three generations. Nobles sometimes made the following distinctions based on the age of their status:
Noblesse chevaleresque (knightly nobility): nobility from before the year 1400.
Noblesse d'extraction: nobility for at least four generations.
Commoners were referred to as roturier. Magistrates and men of law are sometimes called robins. The acquisition of titles of nobility could be done in one generation or gradually over several generations:

Noblesse au premier degré (nobility in the first generation): nobility awarded in the first generation, generally after 20 years of service or by death in one's post. 

Noblesse graduelle: nobility awarded in the second generation, generally after 20 years of service by both father and son.
The noblesse de lettres became, starting in the reign of Francis I, a handy method for the court to raise revenues; non-nobles possessing noble fiefs would pay a year's worth of revenues from their fiefs to gain nobility. In 1598, Henry IV undid a number of these anoblissments, but eventually saw the necessity of the practice. 

The noblesse de cloche dates from 1372 (for the city of Poitiers) and was found only in certain cities with legal and judicial freedoms; by the Revolution these cities were only a handful.

The noblesse de chancellerie first appeared during the reign of Charles VIII at the end of the 15th century. As being a royal chancellor demanded (with few exceptions) royal status, non-nobles holding the position were conferred nobility, generally after 20 years of service. Non-nobles paid enormous sums to hold these positions, but this form of nobility was often criticized as being savonnette à villain (soap for serfs).

The noblesse de robe was a longstanding tradition. In 1600 it gained legal status. High positions in regional parlements, tax boards (chambres des comptes), and other important financial and official state offices (usually bought at great price) conferred nobility, generally in two generations, although the Parlements of Paris, Dauphiné, Besançon and Flanders and the tax boards of Paris, Dole and Grenoble conferred nobility in one generation.

These state offices could be lost by a family at the unexpected death of the office holder. In an attempt to gain more tax revenues, the king's financial advisor Paulet instituted the Paulette in 1604, a yearly tax of 1/60th of the price of the office that insured hereditary transmission. This annual tax solidified the hereditary acquisition of offices in France, and by the middle of the 17th century the majority of office holders were already noble from long possession of these offices.

Henry IV began to crack down on the usurpation of titles of nobility, and in 1666-1674 Louis XIV mandated a massive program of verification of titles of nobility. Oral testimony that maintained that parents and grandparents had always been nobles and lived nobly were no longer accepted. Nobles needed written proofs (marriage contracts, land documents) that they had been noble since 1560. Many families were put back on the lists of the taille and or forced to pay fines for usurping noble titles.


The Titles, Peerage and Orders of France

There were two kinds of titles used by French nobles, some were personal ranks, other were titles linked to the fiefs owned, called fiefs de dignité.


Duc: possessor of a duchy (duché) and recognized as duke by the king.

Marquis: possessor of a marquessate (marquisat) or merely assumed by ambitious families.

Comte: possessor of a county (comté) or merely assumed by ambitious families.

Vicomte: possessor of a viscounty (vicomté).

Baron: possessor of a barony (baronnie).

Prince: possessor of a lordship styled principality (principauté), a title which was only semi-official and never gave his possessor precedence at the court. Not to be confused with the rank of Prince.

Seigneur ('lord'): possessor of a lordship; can be a title of non-nobles. Generally referred to by sieur i.e. sir, followed by the name of the fief, as in sieur de Crenne.


Fils de France: son of a king.

Petit-fils de France: grandson of a king.

Prince du Sang ('prince of the blood'): any legitimate male-line descendant of a king of France.

Prince étranger ('foreign prince'): members of foreign royal or princely families naturalized at the French court, such as the Clèves, Rohan, La Tour d'Auvergne, and Lorraine.

Chevalier: rank assumed only by the most noble families and the possessors of certain high dignities in the court. Member of the orders of chivalry had a title of chevalier, but not a rank of chevalier, which can be confusing.

Écuyer: rank of the vast majority of the nobles. Also called valet or noble homme in certain regions.
The term gentilhomme ('gentleman') was used for any noble, from the king to the last untitled écuyer.

The Pairie was technically a dignity of the Crown, as marshall, but was in fact the highest title used by the French nobility. The peerage was only awarded to princes of the blood, some foreign princes, some bishops and dukes, often from the most ancient and powerful families. The peers could sit in the Parliament of Paris, the most important Court of Justice in the kingdom. In his full style, a noble shall use his rank, his title, and his dignity, as in Marie Jean de Caritat, écuyer, marquis de Condorcet or Louis de Rouvroy, chevalier, duc de Saint-Simon, pair de France.

In principle, the expression seigneur (lord of the manor) applied to anyone possessing a fief, but the term was often used to imply a grand seigneur, or a noble of high rank or status. The use of the nobiliary particle de in noble names (Fr: la particule) was not officially controlled in France (unlike von in the German states), and is not reliable evidence of the bearer's nobility. A simple tailor could be named Marc de Lyon, as a sign of his birth place. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the de was adopted by some non-nobles (like Honoré de Balzac) in an attempt to appear noble.

Each rank of nobility - royal prince, prince belonging to collateral lines of the royal family (prince du sang), duc, marquis, comte, vicomte, baron, etc. - conferred its own privileges; dukes for example could enter royal residences in a carriage, duchesses could sit on a stool with the queen. Dukes in France - the most important group after the princes - were further divided into those who were also "peers" (Duc et Pair) and those who were not. Dukes without a peerage fell into one of two groups: those without peerage fiefs, or those for whom the Parlement refused to register the lettres patentes conferring a peerage on them.

Noble hierarchies were further complicated by the creation of knightly orders - the Chevaliers du Saint-Esprit (Knights of the Holy Spirit) created by Henry III in 1578; the Ordre de Saint-Michel created by Louis XI in 1469; the Order of Saint Louis Louis XIV in 1696 - by official posts, and by positions in the Royal House (the Great Officers of the Crown of France), such as grand maître de la garde-robe (the grand master of the royal wardrobe, being the royal dresser) or grand panetiernoblesse de robe battle each other for these positions and any other sign of royal favor. created by (royal bread server), which had long ceased to be actual functions and had become nominal and formal positions with their own privileges. The 17th and 18th centuries saw nobles and the

Attending the ceremony of the king's waking at Versailles (the smaller and intimate petit lever du roi and the more formal grand lever du roi), being asked to cross the barriers that separated the royal bed from the rest of the room, being invited to talk to the king, or to have a comment said by the king about a noble... all were signs of favor and actively sought after.

The Economic Status of The French Nobility

Economic studies of nobility in France reveal great differences in financial status. At the end of the 18th century, a well-off family could earn 100,000 - 150,000 livres per year, although the most prestigious families could gain two or three times that much. For provincial nobility, yearly earnings of 10,000 livres permitted a minimum of provincial luxury, but most earned far less. The ethics of noble expenditure, the financial crises of the century and the inability of nobles to participate in most fields without losing their nobility contributed to their poverty. In the 18th century, the Comte de Boulainvilliers, a rural noble, posited the belief that French nobility had descended from the victorious Franks, while non-nobles descended from the conquered Gauls. The theory had no validity, but offered a myth for an impoverished noble class.

The Aristocratic Codes of French Nobility

The idea of what it meant to be noble went through a radical transformation from the 16th to the 17th centuries. Through contact with the Italian Renaissance and their concept of the perfect courtier (Baldassare Castiglione), the rude warrior class was remodeled into what the 17th century would come to call l'honnête homme ('the honest or upright man'), among whose chief virtues were eloquent speech, skill at dance, refinement of manners, appreciation of the arts, intellectual curiosity, wit, a spiritual or platonic attitude in love, and the ability to write poetry. Most notable of noble values are the aristocratic obsession with "glory" (la gloire) and majesty (la grandeur) and the spectacle of power, prestige, and luxury. For example, Pierre Corneille's noble heroes have been criticised by modern readers who have seen their actions as vainglorious, criminal, or hubristic; aristocratic spectators of the period would have seen many of these same actions as representative of their noble station.

The château of Versailles, court ballets, noble portraits, triumphal arches were all representations of glory and prestige. The notion of glory (military, artistic, etc.) was seen in the context of the Roman Imperial model; it was not seen as vain or boastful, but as a moral imperative to the aristocratic classes. Nobles were required to be "generous" and "magnanimous", to perform great deeds disinterestedly (i.e. because their status demanded it - whence the expression noblesse oblige - and without expecting financial or political gain), and to master their own emotions, especially fear, jealousy, and the desire for vengeance. One's status in the world demanded appropriate externalisation (or "conspicuous consumption"). Nobles indebted themselves to build prestigious urban mansions (hôtels particuliers) and to buy clothes, paintings, silverware, dishes, and other furnishings befitting their rank. They were also required to show liberality by hosting sumptuous parties and by funding the arts.

Conversely, social parvenus who took on the external trappings of the noble classes (such as the wearing of a sword) were severely criticised, sometimes by legal action; laws on sumptuous clothing worn by bourgeois existed since the Middle Ages. The traditional aristocratic values began to be criticised in the mid 17th century: Blaise Pascal, for example, offered a ferocious analysis of the spectacle of power and François de la Rochefoucauld posited that no human act - however generous it pretended to be - could be considered disinterested.

By relocating the French royal court to Versailles in the 1680s, Louis XIV further modified the role of the nobles. Versailles became a gilded cage: to leave spelled disaster for a noble, for all official charges and appointments were made there. Provincial nobles who refused to join the Versailles system were locked out of important positions in the military or state offices, and lacking royal subsides (and unable to keep up a noble lifestyle on seigneural taxes), these rural nobles (hobereaux) often went into debt. A strict etiquette was imposed: a word or glance from the king could make or destroy a career. At the same time, the relocation of the court to Versailles was also a brilliant political move by Louis. By distracting the nobles with court life and the daily intrigue that came with it, he neutralized a powerful threat to his authority and removed the largest obstacle to his ambition to centralize power in France.

The Power and Protest of Nobility

Before Louis XIV imposed his will on the nobility, the great families of France often claimed a fundamental right to rebel against unacceptable royal abuse. The Wars of Religion, the Fronde, the civil unrest during the minority of Charles VIII and the regencies of Anne of Austria and Marie de Medici are all linked to these perceived loss of rights at the hand of a centralizing royal power.

Much of the power of nobles in these periods of unrest comes from their "clientèle system". Like the king, nobles granted the use of fiefs, and gave gifts and other forms of patronage to other nobles to develop a vast system of noble clients. Lesser families would send their children to be squires and members of these noble houses, and to learn in them the arts of court society and arms.

The elaboration of the Ancien Régime state was made possible only by redirecting these clientèle systems to a new focal point (the king and the state), and by creating countervailing powers (the bourgeoisie, the noblesse de robe). By the late 17th century, any act of explicit or implicit protest was treated as a form of lèse-majesté and harshly repressed.

The Nobility and the Enlightenment

Many key Enlightenment figures were French nobles, such as Montesquieu, whose full name was Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu.

The Abolition of Privileges during the French Revolution

At the beginning of the French Revolution, on August 4, 1789 the dues that a peasant had to pay to the lord, such as the banalités of Manorialism, were abolished by the National Constituent Assembly; noble lands were stripped of their special status as fiefs; the nobility were subjected to the same taxation as their co-nationals, and lost their privileges (the hunt, seigneurial justice, funeral honors). The nobles were, however, allowed to retain their titles.

Nevertheless, it was decided that certain annual financial payments which were owed the nobility and which were considered "contractual" (i.e. not stemming from an usurpation of feudal power, but from a contract between a landowner and a tenant) such as annual rents (the cens and the champart) needed to be bought back by the tenant for the tenant to have clear title to his land. Since the feudal privileges of the nobles had been termed droits de feodalité dominante, these were called droits de féodalité contractante. The rate set (May 3, 1790) for purchase of these contractual debts was 20 times the annual monetary amount (or 25 times the annual amount if given in crops or goods); peasants were also required to pay back any unpaid dues over the past thirty years. Unfortunately, no system of credit was established for small farmers, and only well-off individuals could take advantage of the ruling. This created a massive land grab by well-off peasants and members of the middle-class, who became absentee landowners and had their land worked by share-croppers and poor tenants.

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen had been voted on by the Assembly on August 26, 1789, but the abolition of nobility did not occur at that time. The Declaration declared in its first article that "Men are born free and equal in rights; social distinctions may be based only upon general usefulness." Presumably nobility was still considered to have social utility. It was not until June 19, 1790, that hereditary titles of nobility were abolished. The notions of equality and fraternity would triumph over some nobles such as the Marquis de Lafayette who supported the abolition of legal recognition of nobility, but other liberal nobles who had happily sacrificed their fiscal privileges saw this as an attack on the culture of honor.

The Nobility since the Revolution

Despite the abolition of nobility at the French Revolution and the loss of their privileged juridical status ("all men are equal citizens"), the nobility continued to exist throughout the 19th century.

Napoléon Bonaparte established his own aristocracy and titles during the Empire, and these new nobles maintained the use of their titles even after Napoleon's overthrow. In all, about 2200 titles were created by Napoleon I:

Princes and Dukes:
sovereign princes (3)
duchies grand fiefs (20)
victory princes (4)
victory dukedoms (10)
other dukedoms (3)
Counts (251)
Barons (1516)
Knights (385)

(There were 239 remaining families holding First Empire titles in 1975. Of those, perhaps 130-140 were titled. Only one title of prince and seven titles of duke remain.) Napoleon also established a new knightly order in 1802, the Légion d'honneur, which is still in existence today.

The Restoration of Louis XVIII saw the return of the old nobility to power (while ultra-royalists clamored for a return of lost lands). The electoral laws of 1817 limited suffrage to only the wealthiest or most prestigious members (less than .5%) of the population, which included many of the old nobility. The Second Empire of Napoleon III also saw the granting of noble titles.

If the Third Republic returned once again to the principles of equality espoused by the Revolution (at least among the political Radical party), in practice the upper echelons of French nobility maintained their notion of social distinction well into the 20th century (as witnessed by the presence of nobility and noble class distinctions in the works of Marcel Proust) and the use of their titles was officially sanctioned.

Titles were abolished by the Revolutions of 1789 and 1848, and restored by decree in 1852 (and never officially abolished since) and now can only be lawfully used and given to their bearers in official acts with a decree by the Minister of Justice. Anyone who has a legitimate claim to a title can ask the Minister of Justice to confirm this claim, the bearer can then legally use the title in legal documents such as birth certificates (about 400 such confirmations were made since 1872).

Other Administrative or Official Positions and Titles

The following are administrative or official titles used in France in the Medieval and Early Modern periods. Certain positions may imply or confer nobility (see under each).

vidame: a secular official chosen by a bishop of a diocese to perform functions in the church's earthly interest and in the service of justice.

avoué: a secular official chosen by an Abbey to perform functions in the church's earthly interest and in the service of justice.

gouverneur: royal officer, often prince or duke, exercising royal power in the provinces.

sénéchal or bailli: royal officer in the provinces performing judicial, administrative, and financial services; reduced to judicial functions by the 18th century. The tribunal of the bailliage or sénéchaussée was the first court for trials involving nobles.

prévôt: title given to a variety of civil, military, police, and judicial functions

prévôt: judge in the prévôtés, the lowest level royal courts, a subdivision of the bailliage.

prévôt des marchands: the civic and municipal leaders of certain towns, most notably Paris.

prévôt des maréchaux: regional officers of justice, often involved in suppressing highway crime and insurrections.

intendant: royal commissioner who performed services in the provinces; role greatly expanded under Louis XIV to counteract the role of provincial governors.

surintendant des finances: originally the royal finance officer until the disgrace of Nicolas Fouquet; thereafter, called contrôleur général des finances.

maître des requêtes: parlementarian, magistrate, and administrator serving in the king's counsel; intendants were usually chosen from this body.

conseiller d'État: Counsellor of State, a member of the King's Council.

connétable: chief military officer of the realm; position eliminated in 1627.
Other facts

In France, the signet ring (chevalière) bearing the coat of arms is traditionally worn by French noblemen on the ring finger of their left hand, contrary to usage in most other European countries (where it is worn on the little finger of either the right or left hand, depending on the country); French noble women however wear it on their little finger. The chevalière may either be worn facing up (en baise-main) or facing toward the palm (en bagarre). In contemporary usage, the inward position is increasingly common, although for some noble families the inward position is traditionally used to indicate that the wearer is married. The Association d'entraide de la Noblesse Française (ANF: 'Association for the mutual assistance of French nobility') exists today; it is open exclusively to French nobles.

The Peerage of France
The Peerage of France (French: Pairie de France) was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages. It was abolished in 1789 during the French Revolution, but it reappeared in 1814 at the time of the Bourbon Restoration which followed the fall of the First French Empire. On 10 October 1831, by a 324 against 26 vote of the Chamber of Deputies, hereditary peerage was abolished, but peerage for the life of the holder continued to exist until it was definitively abolished in 1848.

The prestigious title and position of Peer of France (French: Pair de France) was held by the greatest, highest-ranking members of the French nobility. French peerage thus differed from British peerage (to whom the term "barons", also employed as the title of the lowest noble rank, was applied in its generic sense), for the vast majority of French nobles, from baron to duke, were not peers. The title of "Peer of France" was an extraordinary honour granted only to few dukes, counts, and princes of the Roman Catholic Church.

The words "pair" and "pairie"

The French word pairie is equivalent to the English "peerage". The individual title, pair in French and "peer" in English, derives from the Latin par, "equal"; it signifies those noblemen and prelates considered to be equal to the monarch in honor (even though they be his vassals), and it considers the monarch thus to be primus inter pares, or "first among equals". The main uses of the word refer to two historical traditions in the French kingdom, before and after the First French Empire of Napoleon I. The word also exists to describe an institution in the Crusader states. Some etymologists posit that the French (and English) word baron, taken from the Latin baro, also derives from the Latin par. Such a derivation would fit the early sense of "baron", as used for the whole peerage and not simply as a noble rank below the comital.

Under the Monarchy: Feudal period and Ancien Régime

Medieval French kings conferred the dignity of peerage upon certain of his preëminent vassals, both clerical and lay. Some historians consider Louis VII (1137-1180) to have created the French system of peers. Peerage was attached to a specific territorial jurisdiction, either an episcopal see for episcopal peerages or a fief for secular. Peerages attached to fiefs were transmissible or inheritable with the fief, and these fiefs are often designated as pairie-duché (for duchies) and pairie-comté (for counties).

By 1216 there were nine peers:

Archbishop of Reims who had the distinction of crowning the king
Bishop of Langres
Bishop of Beauvais
Bishop of Châlons
Bishop of Noyon
Duke of Normandy
Duke of Burgundy
Duke of Aquitaine also called Duke of Guyenne
Count of Champagne

The presence of Normandy - held by the English crown by Angevin heritage - was theoretical, since in French eyes it had been forfeited to the crown in 1202. A few years later and before 1228 three peers were added to make the total of twelve peers:

Bishop of Laon
Count of Flanders
Count of Toulouse

These twelve peerages are known as the ancient peerage or pairie ancienne, and the number twelve is sometimes said to have been chosen to mirror the 12 paladins of Charlemagne in the Chanson de geste (see below). Parallels may also be seen with mythical Knights of the Round Table under King Arthur. So popular was this notion, that for a long time people thought peerage had originated in the reign of Charlemagne, who was considered the model king and shining example for knighthood and nobility.

The dozen pairs played a role in the royal sacre or consecration, during the liturgy of the coronation of the king, attested to as early as 1179, symbolically upholding his crown, and each original peer had a specific role, often with an attribute. Since the peers were never twelve during the coronation (due to the fact that most lay peerages were forfeited to or merged in the crown), delegates were chosen by the king, mainly from the princes of the blood.

This paralleled the arch-offices attached to the electorates, the even more prestigious and powerful first college in the Holy Roman Empire, the other heir of Charlemagne's Frankish empire. The twelve original peers were divided in two classes, six clerical peers hierarchically above the six lay peers, which were themselves divided in two, three dukes above three counts:

Bishops Lay

Dukes Reims, archbishop, premier peer, anoints and crowns the king Burgundy, premier lay peer, bears the crown and fastens the belt

Laon, bears the sainte ampoule containing the sacred ointment Normandy, holds the first square banner

Langres, the only one of the five bishops not in the Reims province, bears the sceptre Aquitaine also called Guyenne after its refounding, holds the second square banner

Counts Beauvais, bears the royal mantle Toulouse, carries the spurs

Châlons, bears the royal ring Flanders, carries the sword

Noyon, bears the belt Champagne, holds the royal standard

Early in the 13th century the Duchy of Normandy was absorbed by the French crown, and later in that century two more of the lay peerages were absorbed by the crown, so that in 1297 three new peerages were created, the County of Artois, the Duchy of Anjou and the Duchy of Brittany, to compensate for the three peerages that had disappeared.

Thus, beginning in 1297 the practice started of creating new peerages by letters patent, specifying the fief to which the peerage was attached, and the conditions under which the fief could be transmitted (e.g. only male heirs) for princes of the blood who held an apanage. By 1328 all apanagists would be peers.

The number of lay peerages increased over time from 7 in 1297 to 26 in 1400, 21 in 1505, and 24 in 1588. By 1789, there were 43, including five held by princes of the blood (Orléans, Condé, Bourbon, Enghien, and Conti), (Penthièvre) (who was the son of a legitimized prince, the Count of Toulouse, also a pair de France), and 37 other lay peers, ranking from the Duchy of Uzès, created in 1572, to the Duchy of Aubigny, created in 1787.

One family could hold several peerages. The minimum age was 25. The majority of new peerages created up until the fifteenth century were for royal princes, while new peerages from the sixteenth century on were increasingly created for non royals. After 1569 no more countships were made into peers, and peerage was exclusively given to duchies (duc et pair). Occasionally the Parlement (Parlement de Paris) refused to register the lettres of patent conferring peerage on them.

Apart from the coronation of French kings, the privileges of peers were largely matters of precedence, the titles Monseigneur, Votre Grandeur and the address mon cousin, suggesting parentage to the royal family, or at least equivalence, by the King, and a priviligium fori. This meant that judicial proceedings concerning the peers and their pairie-fiefs were exclusively under the jurisdiction of the Court of Peers. Members of the peerage had also the right to sit in a lit de justice, a formal preceding and speak before the Parlement, and they were also given high positions at the court, and a few minor privileges such as entering the courtyards of royal castles in their carriages.

While many lay peerages became extinguished over time, as explained above, the ecclesiastical peerages, on the other hand, were perpetual, and only a seventh one was created before the French Revolution, taking precedence behind the six original ones, being created in 1690 for the Archbishop of Paris, after centuries as a mere suffraganage, styled as second archevêque-duc for he held the Duchy of Saint-Cloud.

The expression pair was also sometimes used for groups of nobles within a French fief (e.g. the Prince-Bishop of Cambrai, who held the County of Cambrai, was the overlord of its twelve pairs). These "peers" did not benefit from the royal privileges listed above.

Under the First Republic and the First Empire : the Revolutionary and Napoleonic period The original peerage of the French realm, like other feudal titles of nobility, was abolished during the French Revolution, on the night of August 4, 1789, the Night of the Abolition of Feudalism.

Napoleon Bonaparte (Emperor of the French from 1804) 'reinvented' the functions of the anciennes pairies, so to speak, as he created in 1806 the exclusive duchés grand-fiefs (in chief of politically insignificant estates in non-annexed parts of Italy) in 1806 and first recreated the honorary functions at (his own) imperial coronation, but now vested in Great officers, not attached to fiefs.

Napoleon reinstituted French noble titles in 1808 but did not create a system of peerages comparable to the United Kingdom. He did create a House of Peers on his return from Elba in 1815, but the House was not constituted before his abdication at the end of the Hundred Days (Cent jours).

Under the Restoration: the Chamber of Peers

The French peerage was recreated by the Charter of 1814 with the Bourbon Restoration, albeit on a different basis from before 1789. A new Chamber of Peers (Chambre des pairs) was created, on the model of the British House of Lords.

This chamber acted as a Upper House, like the House of Lords in the United Kingdom. Members of the Chamber of Peers were appointed by the king, without limit on their numbers, starting with 154, including all surviving pre-Revolutionary lay (except the British-held duchy of Aubigny) and ecclesiastical (Reims, Langres, and Châlons) peerages.

Thirteen peers were also prelates. Peerage was for life or hereditary, granted at the king's will. Male members of the royal family and descendants in male line of previous kings (princes du sang) were members by birth (pairs-nés), but needed explicit permission from the king to sit at each session of the Chamber of Peers.

At first comprising only hereditary peers, the Chamber became a body to which one was appointed for life following the July Revolution of 1830. In the Revolution of 1848, the Chamber of Peers was disbanded and the peerage of France was abolished definitively.

The Peerage of Jerusalem

The Kingdom of Jerusalem, the only crusader state equal in rank to such European kingdoms as France (the origin of most of Jerusalem's knights) and England, had a peerage modelled on the French and using the French language.

In the medieval French chansons de geste and material associated with the Matter of France that tell of the exploits of Charlemagne and his knights -- such as The Song of Roland -- the elite of the imperial army and Charlemagne's closest advisors were called the "The Twelve Peers". The exact names of the peers vary from text to text. In The Song of Roland (Oxford edition), the peers are: Roland, Olivier, Gerin, Gerier, Berengier, Oton, Samson, Engelier, Ivon, Ivoire, Anseïs, and Gérard de Roussillon (Charlemagne's trusted adviser Naimes and the warrior-priest Turpin are, however, not included in the 12 peers in this text; neither is Ganelon the traitor). The number of peers is thought to parallel the twelve apostles.

The Old Peerages of France

Duke of Reims before 1216 held by the Archbishop of Reims
Duke of Langres before 1216 held by the Bishop of Langres
Duke of Normandie before 1216 forfeit 1203
Duke of Bourgogne before 1216 merged 1361
Duke of Guyenne before 1216 forfeit 1203
Count of Beauvais before 1216 held by the Bishop of Beauvais
Count of Châlons before 1216 held by the Bishop of Châlons
Count of Noyon before 1216 held by the Bishop of Noyon
Count of Champagne before 1216 merged 1314
Duke of Laon before 1228 held by the Bishop of Laon
Count of Toulouse before 1228 merged 1271
Count of Flandres before 1228 ceded to the Holy Roman Empire 1531

The New Peerages of France (1259-1789)

Duke of Guyenne 1259 Angleterre (House of Anjou) forfeit 1369 also forfeit 1294-1303 and 1347-1360; legitimate male line extinguished in 1499
Count of Anjou 1297 Royal family merged 1328 for Charles, brother of King Philippe IV
Count of Artois 1297 Artois (Royal family) ceded to the Holy Roman Empire 1530
Duke of Bretagne 1297 Dreux (Royal family) merged 1532
Count of Poitou 1314 Royal family merged 1316 for Philippe, brother of King Louis X
Count of La Marche 1316 Royal family extinct 1321 for Charles, brother of King Philippe V
Count of Évreux 1316 Évreux (Royal family) exchanged 1404
Count of Angoulême 1317 Évreux (Royal family) exchanged 1404
Count of La Marche 1321 Bourbon (Royal family) forfeit 1527
Count of Étampes 1327 Évreux (Royal family) given away 1381
Duke of Bourbon 1327 Bourbon (Royal family) forfeit 1527
Count of Beaumont-le-Roger 1328 Artois (Royal family) forfeit 1331
Count of Maine 1331 Royal family merged 1350 for Jean, son of King Philippe VI
Duke of Normandie 1332 Royal family merged 1350 for Jean, son of King Philippe VI
Duke of Orléans 1344 Royal family extinct 1376 for Philippe, son of King Philippe VI
Count of Valois 1344 Royal family extinct 1376 for Philippe, son of King Philippe VI
Count of Nevers 1347 Royal family, Flandres extinct 1383 for Marguerite, daughter of King Philippe V
Count of Beaulac 1353 Évreux (Royal family) exchanged 1404
Count of Beaumont-le-Roger 1354 Évreux (Royal family) exchanged 1404
Duke of Normandie 1355 Royal family merged 1364 for Charles, son of King Jean II
Duke of Anjou 1356 Royal family extinct 1481 for Louis, son of King Jean II
Count of Poitou 1357 Royal family exchanged 1360 for Jean, son of King Jean II
Count of Mâcon 1359 Royal family exchanged 1360 for Jean, son of King Jean II
Count of Maine 1360 Royal family extinct 1481 for Louis, son of King Jean II
Duke of Berry 1360 Royal family extinct 1417 for Jean, son of King Jean II
Duke of Auvergne 1360 Royal family extinct 1521 for Jean, son of King Jean II
Duke of Touraine 1360 Royal family exchanged 1363 for Philippe, son of King Jean II
Duke of Bourgogne 1363 Royal family extinct 1477 for Philippe, son of King Jean II
Count of Poitou 1369 Royal family extinct 1417 for Jean, son of King Jean II
Baron of Montpellier 1371 Évreux (Royal family) forfeit 1382
Duke of Touraine 1386 Royal family exchanged 1392 for Louis, brother of King Charles VI
Duke of Orléans 1392 Royal family merged 1498 for Louis, brother of King Charles VI
Count of Valois 1392 Royal family elevated to a dukedom 1406 for Louis, brother of King Charles VI
Duke of Guyenne after 1392 Royal family extinct 1400 for Charles, son of King Charles VI
Count of Périgord 1399 Orléans (Royal family) sold 1397
Duke of Guyenne after 1400 Royal family extinct 1415 for Louis, son of King Charles VI
Duke of Touraine 1401 Royal family extinct 1416 for Jean, son of King Charles VI
Duke of Alençon 1404 Alençon (Royal family) extinct 1525 forfeit 1458-1461, 1474-1476 and 1482-1483
Count of Soissons 1404 Orléans (Royal family) merged 1498 for Louis, brother of King Charles VI
Baron of Coucy 1404 Orléans (Royal family) merged 1498 for Louis, brother of King Charles VI
Duke of Nemours 1404 Évreux (Royal family) extinct 1503
Châtelain de Châtillon 1404 ?? ??
Count of Rethel 1405 Bourgogne extinct 1415
Duke of Valois 1406 Royal family merged 1498 for Louis, brother of King Charles VI
Count of Mortagne 1407 Royal family extinct 1416 for Jean, son of King Charles VI
Count of Mortain 1407 Évreux (Royal family) forfeit 1408
Châtelain d'Evry-le-Châtel 1408
Châtelain de Jouy-le-Châtel 1408
Count of Mortain 1414 Royal family extinct 1415 for Louis, son of King Charles VI
Duke of Berry 1416 Royal family extinct 1416 for Jean, son of King Charles VI
Duke of Touraine 1416 Royal family meregd 1422 for Charles, son of King Charles VI
Duke of Berry 1417 Royal family merged 1422 for Charles, son of King Charles VI
Duke of Touraine 1423 Douglas extinct 1424
Count of Évreux 1427 Stewart exchanged after 1428
Count of Saintonge 1428
Duke of Normandy 1436 Royal family extinct 1436 for Philippe, son of King Charles VII
Duke of Guyenne 1436 Royal family extinct 1436 for Philippe, son of King Charles VII
Count of Foix 1458 Foix, Albret, Bourbon merged 1589
Count of Eu 1458 Artois (Royal family), Bourgogne, Cleves, Lorraine-Guise, Orléans, Bourbon extinct 1775
Count of Nevers 1459 Bourgogne (Royal family) extinct 1464
Duke of Berry 1461 Royal family exchanged 1465 for Charles, brother of King Louis XI
Count of Nevers 1464 Bourgogne (Royal family) extinct 1491
Duke of Normandy 1465 Royal family exchanged 1469 for Charles, brother of King Louis XI
Count of Mortain 1465 Royal family extinct 1474 for Charles, brother of King Louis XI
Duke of Guyenne 1469 Royal family extinct 1474 for Charles, brother of King Louis XI
Count of Villefranche 1480 Aragon extinct ???
Duke of Valois 1498 Angoulême (Royal family) merged 1515
Count of Nevers 1505 Cleves elevated to a dukedom 1538
Countess of Soissons 1505 Royal family merged 1515 for Claude, daughter of King Louis XII
Baronness of Coucy 1505 Royal family merged 1515 for Claude, daughter of King Louis XII
Duke of Nemours 1507 Foix extinct 1512
Duchess of Angoulême 1515 Savoie extinct 1532 for Louise of Savoy, mother of King François I
Duchess of Anjou 1515 Savoie extinct 1532 for Louise of Savoy, mother of King François I
Duke of Vendôme 1515 Bourbon (Royal family) merged 1589
Duke of Châtellherault 1515 Bourbon (Royal family) forfeit 1527
Duchess of Valois 1516 Orléans (Royal family) extinct 1520
Duchess of Berry 1517 Orléans (Royal family) extinct 1549
Duke of Nemours 1524 Savoie extinct 1652 for Louise of Savoy, mother of King François I. Transferred to the grantee's brother in 1528
Duchess of Bourbon 1527 Savoie extinct 1532 for Louise of Savoy, mother of King François I
Duchess of Châtellerault 1527 Savoie given away 1530
Duchess of Châtellerault 1530 Savoie extinct 1532 for Louise of Savoy, mother of King François I
Duke of Guise 1528 Lorraine extinct 1675
Duke of Nevers 1539 Albret, Cleves, Gonzaga sold 1659
Duke of Orléans 1540 Royal family extinct 1545 for Charles, son of King François I
Duke of Angoulême 1540 Royal family extinct 1545 for Charles, son of King François I

Duke of Châtellerault 1540 Royal family extinct 1545 for Charles, son of King François I
Count of Clermont 1540 Royal family extinct 1545 for Charles, son of King François I
Count of La Marche 1540 Royal family extinct 1545 for Charles, son of King François I
Duke of Bourbon 1544 Royal family extinct 1545 for Charles, son of King François I
Duke of Aumale 1547 Lorraine-Guise extinct 1631
Duchess of Berry 1550 Royal family extinct 1574 for Marguerite, sister of King Henri II
Duke of Montmorency 1551 Montmorency forfeit 1632
Duke of Albret 1556 Albret, Bourbon merged 1589
Duke of Anjou 1566 Royal family merged 1574 for Henri, brother of King Charles IX
Duke of Bourbon 1566 Royal family merged 1574 for Henri, brother of King Charles IX
Count of Forez 1566 Royal family merged 1574 for Henri, brother of King Charles IX
Duke of Alençon 1566 Royal family extinct 1584 for François, brother of King Charles IX
Duke of Château-Thierry 1566 Royal family extinct 1584 for François, brother of King Charles IX
Count of Perche 1566 Royal family extinct 1584 for François, brother of King Charles IX
Count of Meulan 1566 Royal family extinct 1584 for François, brother of King Charles IX
Count of Mantes 1566 Royal family extinct 1584 for François, brother of King Charles IX
Duke of Auvergne 1569 Royal family merged 1574 for Henri, brother of King Charles IX
Duke of Penthièvre 1569 Luxembourg, Lorraine, Bourbon-Vendôme extinct 1687
Duke of Évreux 1569 Royal family extinct 1584 for François, brother of King Charles IX
Count of Dreux 1569 Royal family extinct 1584 for François, brother of King Charles IX
Duke of Mercoeur 1569 Lorraine extinct 1712
Duke of Uzès 1572 Crussol abolished 1790
Duke of Mayenne 1573 Lorraine-Guise, Gonzaga sold 1654
Duke of Saint-Fargeau 1574 Bourbon-Montpensier (Royal family) extinct 1693
Duke of Anjou 1576 Royal family extinct 1584 for François, brother of King Henri III
Duke of Touraine 1576 Royal family extinct 1584 for François, brother of King Henri III
Duke of Berry 1576 Royal family extinct 1584 for François, brother of King Henri III
Duke of Joyeuse 1581 Joyeuse, Lorraine-Guise extinct 1675
Duke of Piney 1581 Luxembourg, Albert, Clermont, Montmorency-Luxembourg abolished 1790 also known as Duc de Luxembourg
Duke of Elbeuf 1581 Lorraine abolished 1790
Duke of Retz 1581 Gondi extinct 1634
Duke of Epernon 1581 La Valette extinct 1661
Duke of Rethel 1581 Gonzaga sold 1658
Duke of Hallwin 1588 Hallwin extinct 1611(?)
Duke of Montbazon 1588 Rohan extinct 1593
Duke of Ventadour 1589 Lévis extinct 1717
Duke of Montbazon 1595 Rohan abolished 1790
Duke of Thouars 1599 La Trémoille abolished 1790
Duke of Beaufort 1597 Estrées, Bourbon sold 1688 for the mistress of King Henri IV
Duke of Vendôme 1598 Bourbon extinct 1712 for Cesar, illegitimate son of King Henri IV
Duke of Biron 1598 Gontaut forfeit 1602
Duke of Aiguillon 1600 Lorraine-Mayenne extinct 1621
Duke of Rohan 1603 Rohan extinct 1638
Duke of Sully 1606 Béthune abolished 1790
Duke of Fronsac 1608 Orléans-Longueville extinct 1631
Duchess of Montpensier 1608 Bourbon (Royal family), Orléans extinct 1693
Duke of Damville 1610 Montmorency forfeit 1632
Duke of Hallwin 1611 Hallwin extinct 1620
Duke of Châteauroux 1616 Bourbon-Condé (Royal family) left the possession of this family by 1710
Duke of Segur 1619 Albert abolished 1790
Duke of Lesdiguières 1620 Bonne, Créquy extinct 1711
Duke of Bellegarde 1620 Saint-Lary extinct 1646
Duke of Brissac 1620 Cossé abolished 1790
Duke of Hallwin 1621 Hallwin, Schomberg extinct 1656
Duke of Candale 1621 La Valette extinct 1639 peerage created for life with no territorial attachment
Duke of Chaulnes 1621 Albert extinct 1698
Duke of Orléans 1626 Royal family extinct 1660 for Gaston, brother of King Louis XIII
Duke of Chartres 1626 Royal family extinct 1660 for Gaston, brother of King Louis XIII
Duke of Chevreuse 1627 Lorraine-Guise sold 1655
Duke of Valois 1630 Royal family extinct 1660 for Gaston, brother of King Louis XIII
Duke of Richelieu 1631 Plessis, Vignerot abolished 1790
Duke of La Valette 1631 La Valette extinct 1661
Duke of La Rochefoucauld 1631 La Rochefoucauld abolished 1790
Duke of Montmorency 1633 Bourbon-Condé (Royal family) abolished 1790 renamed Duc d'Enghien in 1689
Duke of Retz 1634 Gondi extinct 1676
Duke of Fronsac 1634 Plessis, Maillé-Brézé, Bourbon-Condé, Vignerot abolished 1790
Duke of Aiguillon 1634 L'Age extinct 1635
Duke of Saint-Simon 1635 Rouvroy extinct 1755
Duke of La Force 1637 Caumont extinct 1755
Duke of Aiguillon 1638 Vignerot, Plessis abolished 1790
Duke of Albret 1641 Bourbon-Condé (Royal family) given away 1651
Duke of Valentinois 1642 Grimaldi extinct 1731
Duke of Rohan 1648 Rohan-Chabot abolished 1790
Duke of Albret 1665 La Tour d'Auvergne abolished 1790
Duke of Château-Thierry 1665 La Tour d'Auvergne abolised 1790
Duke of Bourbon 1661 Bourbon-Condé (Royal family) abolished 1790
Duke of Orléans 1661 Royal family abolished 1790 for Philippe, brother of King Louis XIV
Duke of Chartres 1661 Royal family abolished 1790 for Philippe, brother of King Louis XIV
Duke of Valois 1661 Royal family abolished 1790 for Philippe, brother of King Louis XIV
Duke of Randan 1661 La Rochefoucauld-Randan, Foix de Candale extinct 1714
Duke of Verneuil 1663 Bourbon extinct 1682 for Henri, illegitimate son of King Henri IV
Duke of Estrées 1663 Estrées de Lauzières extinct 1737
Duke of Gramont 1663 Gramont abolished 1790
Duke of La Meilleraye 1663 La Porte-Mazarin extinct 1738
Duke of Rethel 1663 La Porte-Mazarin extinct 1738
Duke of Villeroy 1663 Neufville abolished 1794
Duke of Mortemart 1663 Rochechouart abolished 1790
Duke of Poix 1663 Créquy extinct 1687
Duke of Saint-Aignan 1663 Beauvilliers abolished 1790
Duke of La Rocheguyon 1663 Plessis-Liancourt extinct 1674
Duke of Tresmes 1663 Potier abolished 1790
Duc de Noailles 1663 Noailles abolished 1790
Duc de Coislin 1663 Cambout extinct 1732
Duc de Choiseul 1665 Choiseul extinct 1705
Duc d'Aumont 1665 Aumont abolished 1790
Duc de La Ferté-Senneterre 1666 Saint-Nectaire extinct 1703
Duc de Montausier 1665 Saint-Maure extinct 1690
Duchesse de La Vallière 1667 La Vallière, Bourbon given away 1698 for the mistress of King Louis XIV
Duc de Nemours 1672 Royal family abolished 1790 for Philippe, brother of King Louis XIV
Duc de Saint-Cloud 1674 n/a abolished 1790 held by the Archbishop of Paris
Duc de Béthune-Charost 1690 Béthune abolished 1790
Duc de Damville 1694 Bourbon sold 1719 for Louis-Alexandre, legitimated son of King Louis XIV
Duc de Montpensier 1695 Royal family abolished 1790 for Philippe, brother of King Louis XIV
Duc d'Aumale 1695 Bourbon sold 1773 for Louis-Auguste, legitimated son of King Louis XIV
Duc de Penthièvre 1697 Bourbon abolished 1790 for Louis-Alexandre, legitimated son of King Louis XIV
Duc de Châteauvillain 1703 Bourbon abolished 1790 for Louis-Alexandre, legitimated son of King Louis XIV
Duc de Guise 1704 Bourbon-Condé (Royal family) abolished 1790
Duc de Boufflers 1708 Boufflers extinct 1751
Duc de Villars 1709 Brancas extinct 1777
Duc d'Harcourt 1709 Harcourt abolished 1790
Duc d'Alençon 1710 Royal family extinct 1714 for Charles, grandson of King Louis XIV
Duc d'Angoulême 1710 Royal family extinct 1714 for Charles, grandson of King Louis XIV
Duc de Fitz-James 1710 Fitz-James abolished 1790
Duc d'Antin 1711 Pardaillan de Gondrin extinct 1757
Duc de Rambouillet 1711 Bourbon abolished 1790 for Louis-Alexandre, legitimated son of King Louis XIV
Duc de Chaulnes 1711 Albert d'Ailly, Albert de Luynes abolished 1790
Duc de Rohan-Rohan 1714 Rohan extinct 1787
Duc de Joyeuse 1714 Melun extinct 1724
Duc de Hostun 1715 Hostun extinct 1755
Duc de Villars-Brancas 1716 Brancas abolished 1790
Duc de Roannais 1716 Aubusson de La Feuillade extinct 1725
Duc de Valentinois 1716 Goyon de Matignon, Grimaldi abolished 1790
Duc de Nevers 1720 Mazarini-Mancini abolished 1790
Duc de Biron 1723 Gontaut de Biron abolished 1793
Duc de Lévis 1723 Lévis extinct 1734
Duc de La Vallière 1723 La Baume Le Blanc extinct 1780
Duc de Mercoeur 1723 Bourbon-Conti (Royal family) sold 1770
Duc de Châtillon 1736 Châtillon extinct 1762
Duc de Fleury 1736 Rosset abolished 1790
Duc de Gisors 1748 Fouquet extinct 1761
Duc de Duras 1756 Durfort abolished 1790
Duc de Stainville 1758 Choiseul extinct 1785
Duc de La Vauguyon 1758 Quélen de Stuer de Caussade abolished 1790
Duc de Praslin 1762 Choiseul abolished 1790
Duc de Choiseul d'Amboise 1764 Choiseul extinct 1785
Duchesse de Pompadour Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour, mistress of King Louis XV of France Louis XV
Duc d'Anjou 1771 Royal family abolished 1790 for Louis, brother of King Louis XVI
Duc d'Angoulême 1773 Royal family abolished 1790 for Charles, brother of King Louis XVI
Duc d'Auvergne 1773 Royal family exchanged 1778 for Charles, brother of King Louis XVI
Duc de Mercoeur 1773 Royal family exchanged 1778 for Charles, brother of King Louis XVI
Duc d'Alençon 1774 Royal family abolished 1790 for Louis, brother of King Louis XVI
Duc de Clermont-Tonnerre 1775 Clermont-Tonnerre abolished 1790
Duc de Berry 1776 Royal family abolished 1790 for Charles, brother of King Louis XVI
Duc de Châteauroux 1776 Royal family abolished 1790 for Charles, brother of King Louis XVI
Duc d'Aumale 1776 Bourbon abolished 1790
Duc de Gisors 1776 Bourbon abolished 1790
Duc de Brunoy 1777 Royal family given away 1786 for Louis, brother of King Louis XVI
Duchesse de Louvois 1777 Royal family abolished 1790 for Marie-Adélaïde and Sophie, daughters of King Louis XV (held jointly)
Duc d'Aubigny 1777 Stuart, Lennox, Gordon abolished 1790
Duc d'Amboise 1787 Bourbon abolished 1790
Duc de Choiseul 1787 Choiseul-Beaupré abolished 1790
Duc de Coigny 1787 Franquetot abolished 1790 the last peerage created before the Revolution

The List of French Marquisates
The following page contains an incomplete list of marquisates in France (in French marquisat), created by the kings France or Spain (in the conquered provinces), the dukes of Savoie, Lorraine, the popes in Comtat Venaissin or other sovereign lords in current day France. From the late Middle Ages until the French revolution marquisates were mainly raised by Letters patent (in French lettres patentes) or in a few cases other official acts (e.g., brevet royal) and presented to distinguished nobles as a reward or to members of princely houses. Currently there does not exist a complete list of marquisates or other marquesses, as it does for ducal titles, and the creations were numerous especially in the reigns of Louis XIV and XV. Pure courtesy titles are not included in this list of marquisates in France since they are not raised, but some uncertain marquisates are especially commented on.

A possessor of a marquisate "x" before the French revolution was titled "marquis of x" (French "marquis de x"). The title stayed with the fief, but strictly speaking a buyer of a marquisate needed a confirmation of the marquisate to be able to enjoy the title - otherwise he or she would formally only be styled "lord or dame of the marquisate x" (in French "seigneur ou dame de marquisat de x"). The policy on this matter was however fairly relaxed and the number of confirmations were rather few which did not seem to hinder the usage of the title marquis. With the French revolution feudalism was abolished and the titles became disconnected from the land they previously belonged to. Therefore it is after this time no longer possible to purchase a former marquisate and thereby obtain the title marquis (or any other noble title for that matter). Only a few marquisates in France were also specifically transferable through marriage (opposite to the normal custom in Italy and Spain) and therefore the title usually becomes extinct when the last male descendant of the possessor at the time of the French revolution dies. An adoption of another male person by the last legal (male) possessor of the title could in some respect be treated as a legal transfer of the title itself (but never the nobility if the adopted person is not noble).


ACIGNÉ Bretagne 35 1609 de Cossé-Brissac Extant held by de Talhouët de Bonamour through heritage 1748
ACY Île-de-France 60 1668 Rouault de Gamaches Extant held by Cadeau d'Acy since 172_
AGNEAUX Normandie 50 Louis XV de Sainte-Marie d'Agneaux Extinct 1881
AGRAIN Velay 43 1760 de Pradier de Mons Extant raised through brevet royal
l'AIGLE Normandie 61 1650 des Acres de l'Aigle Extinct 1996 some sources state raised 1653
AIGNEAUX Normandie 14 c1778 d'Aigneaux Extant raised through brevet royal
AIGREMONT Flandre 59 1773 Jacops d'Aigremont Extant
AIRVAULT Poitou 79 c1650 Ysoré d'Hervault Extinct 1917 raised by the duc de Thouars; previous more commonly HERVAULT
AIRVAULT Poitou 79 1678 Darrot Extinct 1917 confirmation of the previous title
AIX(-les-BAINS) Savoie 73 1575 de la Chambre-Seyssel Extant raised by the duc de Savoie; held by de Seyssel de la Serraz de Sommariva since 1687
AIZENAY Poitou 85 b1689 de la Tour d'Aizenay Extinct 1892
ALAUZIER Comtat 84 1741 de Ripert de Fabry d'Alauzier Extant papal title
ALBERT Picardie 80 1620 d'Albert de Luynes Extant held by royal house of d'Orléans as heirs to de Bourbon-Penthièvre
ALBERTAS Provence 13 1767 d'Albertas Extant
ALBY Savoie 74 1681 Maillard de Tournon Extinct 1819 raised by the duc de Savoie
ALÈGRE Velay 43 1576 (de Tourzel) d'Alègre Extinct 1845
ALIGRE Aunis 17 1777 d'Aligre de Marans Extinct 1847
ALINCOURT Ile-de-France 60 Henri IV de Neufville de Villeroi Extinct 18__ temporarily Duchy 1729-33, then reverted to marquisate
ALLEMANS Périgord 24 c1675 du Lau d'Allemans Extant uncertain marquisate
ALLUYES Chartrain 28 c1590 d'Escoubleau de Sourdis Extinct 1802
AMBERT Auvergne 63 Louis XVI de Merle de Beauchamps Extinct 1798
AMBLIMONT Champagne 08 1675 Renart de Fuchsamberg Extinct 1797
AMBLY Champagne 08 c1662 d'Ambly Extinct 1869

AMBLY Champagne 08 1768 d'Ambly Extinct 1869 confirmation of the previous title
AMBRES Albigeois 81 c1625 de Gélas de Léberon Extant held by de Noailles-Poix since 1764
AMFREVILLE Normandie 50 1653 Davy d'Amfreville Extinct c1849
AMOU Gascogne 40 1664 de Caupenne d'Amou Extant held by the branch de Caupenne d'Aspremont since 1847
ANCRE Picardie 80 1576 d'Humières Name change 1620 changed name to marquisat d'ALBERT
ANDELARRE Fr.Comté 39 1760 de Jaquot d'Andelarre Name change 1777 changed name to marquisat d'JAQUOT d'ANDELARRE
ANDELOT Fr.Comté 39 1617 de Coligny-Andelot Extinct 1827 Spanish title; used by heirs to de Coligny though sold 1702
ANDELOT Fr.Comté 39 1744 Guyennard d'Andelot Extinct 1827 confirmation of the previous title
ANDRÉSY Île-de-France 78 mid 16__ de l'Isle d'Andrésy Extinct 1789 belonged to the chapitre de Paris until the revolution
ANDUZE Languedoc 30 1078 Pelet d'Anduze Dissolved 1226 one of a few feudal marquisates; dissolved after confisaction
ANDUZE Languedoc 30 1645 Folquier d'Airebaudouze Extinct former marquisate reestablished
ANGERVILLE Normandie 76 Louis XV d'Angerville d'Auvrecher Extinct 1997
ANGLURE Champagne 10 1657 de Braux Extinct 18__
ANGLURE Champagne 10 1682 de Savigny d'Anglure Extinct 18__ confirmation of the previous title
ANJONY Auvergne 15 Louis XIV d'Anjony de Foix Extinct 1864 probably courtesy title; retaken by Péllissier de Féligonde
ANNEBAULT Normandie 27 1640 de Vieux-Pont + Potier de Blérancourt Extinct c1800 dual ownership until 1723
ANNONAY Vivarais 07 1620 de Lévis-Ventadour Extinct 1830
ANTIGNY Bourgogne 21 1654 de Damas d'Antigny Extinct 1908
ANTIN Bigorre 65 1615 de Pardaillan-Gondrin Duchy 1711
AOUST Flandre 59 1739 d'Aoust de Cuinchy Extinct 1845
APREVILLE Bretagne 22 c1660 du Bourblanc Extinct 1839
ARAGON Languedoc 11 Louis XV de Maurel d'Aragon Extant uncertain marquisate; held by de Bancalis as heirs since 1739
ARAMON Languedoc 30 c1670 de Sauvan d'Aramon Extant
ARC-en-BARROIS Champagne 52 1578 de Bauffremont-Listenois Extant held by the royal house of d'Orléans as heirs to de Bourbon-Toulouse
ARC-sur-TILLE Bourgogne 21 c1670 de Saulx-Tavannes Extinct 1845
ARCELOT Bourgogne 21 1674 de Guéribout Extinct 1870 title used by Carrelet de Loisy
ARCELOT Bourgogne 21 1697 de Masseau Extinct 1870 confirmation of the previous titel
ARCHIAC Saintonge 17 1609 de Bourdeille Extinct 1837
ARCY Bourgogne 71 165_ de Guillard d'Arcy Extinct 18__
ARCY Bourgogne 71 late 16__ de Valadoux d'Arcy Extinct 18__ confirmation of the previous title
ARGENCE Angoumois 16 1707 Achard-Joumard-Tison d'Argence Extant
ARGENS Provence 04 1722 de Boyer d'Argens Extinct 1956
ARGENSON Touraine 37 1700 de Voyer de Paulmy Extant some sources state raised 1718
ARIFAT Albigeois 81 Louis XV de Villeneuve-Arifat Extinct 1878
ARMAILLÉ Anjou 49 1725 de la Forest d'Armaillé Extant uncertain marquisate
ARMENTIÈRES Picardie 02 c1630 de Conflans d'Ouchy Extinct 1849
ARMOLIS Artois 62 1771 Roergas d'Armolis Extinct 1803
ARPAJON Île-de-France 91 1720 d'Arpajon Extant held by de Noailles-Poix since 1747
ARQUES Languedoc 11 Louis XIII de Châteauneuf-Randon de Joyeuse Extinct 1827 uncertain marquisate
ARS Angoumois 16 1652 de Brémond d'Ars Extant raised through brevet royal
ARVILLARD Dauphiné 38 1739 de Barral de Clermont Extant held by the branch de Barral de Montferrat since 1919
ARVILLARS Savoie 73 1678 Milliet d'Arvillars Extant raised by the duc de Savoie; held by the branch Milliet de Faverges since 1897
ASFELD Champagne 08 1730 Bidal d'Asfeld Extinct c1817 a Spanish marquisate with same name was created in Castille 1715
ASNIÈRES Marche 86 1745 Guiot d'Asnières Extinct 1887
ASNIÈRES-de-la-CHÂTAIGNERAYE Poitou 85 1776 d'Asnières de la Châtaigneraye Extinct 1892
ASSÉRAC Bretagne 44 1574 de Rieux-Assérac Extinct 1870
ASSY Normandie 14 1762 de Morell d'Aubigny Extant some sources state raised 1766
ATILLY Île-de-France 77 1668 de Bernard Extinct 1795
AUBAIS Languedoc 30 1724 de Baschi d'Aubais Extinct 1927
AUBEPEYRE Marche 23 Louis XIV de Turenne d'Aubepeyre Extant
AUBETERRE Angoumois 16 c1620 de Bouchard d'Esparbès de Lussan Extinct 1947
AUBIGNAN Comtat 84 1667 de Séguins de Panisse-Pazzis Extant papal title
AUBIGNY Forez 42 c1750 Henrys d'Aubigny Extant probably courtesy title as owner of marquisat de SURY
AULNAY(-lès-BONDY) Île-de-France 94 1683 de Gourgues Extinct 1949
AURIMONT Armagnac 32 1690 de Griffolet d'Aurimont Extant
AUSSONNE Languedoc 31 1676 du Buisson d'Aussonne Extinct 1887
AUTHUME Fr.Comté 39 1750 de Masson d'Authume Extant
AUTICHAMP Dauphiné 26 1680 de Beaumont d'Autichamp Extant unregistered marquisate
AUTRY Berry 18 mid 16__ d'Estampes-Autry Extinct 1813
AUX Maine 72 1777 d'Aux de Villaines Extinct 1963 alias marquisat de VILLENNES
AVARAY Blésois 41 b1665 de Bésiade d'Avaray Extinct 1943
AVAUGOUR Bretagne 22 mid 16__ de Bretagne-Avaugour Extinct 1830 uncertain marquisate
AVÉJAN Languedoc 30 1736 de Banne d'Avéjan Extinct
AVERNES Normandie 61 Louis XIV de Bernart d'Avernes Extinct 1818
AVÈZE Languedoc 30 1657 de Frézals Extinct 18__
AVOIR Anjou 49 c1650 de Chambes Extinct 1916
AXAT Languedoc 11 1717 d'Ax d'Axat Extant raised through brevet royal, held by the branch Dax de Cessales since 1788
AXAT Languedoc 11 1740 d'Ax d'Axat Extant confirmation of the previous title
les AYVELLES Champagne 08 1675 d'Ambly des Ayvelles Extinct 1795


BACQUEHEM Artois 62 1765 de Bacquehem Extinct 1917
BADENS Languedoc 11 c1770 du Pac de
Badens Extinct 19__
CHÂTEL Bresse 01 1575 de Savoie
-Tende Extinct
BAGNAC Marche 87 1724 de Saint-
Martin de
Bagnac Extinct 1892
BALAGNY Picardie 60 c1620 de Lasseran
de Montluc Extinct
BALAY Fr.Comté 39 1712 de Balay Extinct 1843
BALINCOURT Île-de-France 95 1719 Testu de Balincourt Extant
BALINCOURT Île-de-France 95 1748 Testu de Balincourt Extant
BALLEROY Normandie 14 1704 de la Cour de Balleroy Extinct 1957
la BALLUE Bretagne 35 1622 Ruellan de la Ballue Extinct 1819
BALON Bugey 01 1760 de Regard de Perrucard Extinct
BANDEVILLE Île-de-France 91 1682 Bazin Extant
BANDEVILLE Île-de-France 91 1704 Doublet de Bandeville Extant
BARASTRE Artois 62 1771 de Couronnel Extinct 1924
BARBANTANE Comtat 13 1745 de Puget de Cabassole du Réal Extant
la BARBEN Provence 13 L XVI de Forbin-la Barben Extinct 1987
BARBENTANE Comtat 13 c1680 de Robin de Barbentane Extant
BARBEZIEUX Saintonge 16 1678 le Tellier de Louvois Extinct 1797
BARGEMON Provence 83 1770 de Villeneuve-Bargemon Extant
la BARRE Maine 53 1633 de Chivré County 1735
BASSOMPIERRE Lorraine 55 1633 de Bassompierre Extinct
BASSOMPIERRE Lorraine 88 1766 de Bassompierre Extinct 1837
BASVILLE Île-de-France 91 1670 de Lamoignon Extinct 1845
la BÂTIE-de-SEYSSEL Savoie 73 1699 d'Oncieu de la Bâtie Extant
BAUCHÉ Berry 36 1649 de Crevant-Bauché Extinct
BAUDRICOURT Lorraine 88 1719 de Bassompierre Name change 1766
la BAUME-d'HOSTUN Dauphiné 26 Henri IV d'Hostun de Gadagne Duchy 1712
les BAUX Provence 13 1642 Grimaldi de Monaco Extinct 1949
BAYERS Angoumois 16 Louis XIV de la Rochefoucauld-Bayers Extinct 1940
BAYON Lorraine 54 1720 de Ludre-Frolois Extinct 1846
BAZILLAC Bigorre 65 b1645 d'Audéric de Savignac Extinct 1878
BEAUCHAMP Comtat 84 Louis XIV de Merles de Beauchamp Extinct 1864
BEAUCOURT Picardie 80 Louis XV du Fresne de Beaucourt Extant
BEAUCOURT(-en-SANTERRE) Picardie 80 c1670 de Festart Extinct 19__
BEAUFORT Languedoc 30 mid 16__ de Frezals Extinct 1890
BEAUJEU Berry 18 mid 16__ du Mesnil-Simon Extinct 19__
BEAUMONT-la-RONCE Touraine 37 1757 Bonnin de la Bonninière Extant
BEAUPRÉ Champagne 55 mid 16__ de Choiseul-Daillecourt Extinct
BEAUPRÉAU Anjou 49 1554 de Montéspedon+de Bourbon-Montpensier Extinct 1884
BEAUREGARD Savoie 74 1700 Costa de Beauregard Extant
BEAUREPAIRE Bourgogne 71 c1760 de Beaurepaire Extant
BEAUVAIS Périgord 24 c1740 de la Cropte de Chantérac Extant
BEAUVAU Anjou 49 1664 de Beauvau(-Craon) Extinct 1982
BEAUVOIR Normandie 76 c1760 Hébert de Beauvoir Extant
BEAUVOIR-sur-MER Poitou 85 ? ? Extinct
BÉLESTA Languedoc 31 c1725 de Varagnes de Gardouch Extinct 1863
le BELLAY Anjou 49 Louis XIII du Bellay Extinct
BELLEBRUNE Picardie 62 mid 16__ de Blondel de Joigny Extinct
BELLEFONDS Normandie 50 Louis XIII Gigault de Bellefonds Extinct 1928
BELLEGARDE Orléanais 45 1757 Gaultier de Bézigny Extinct 1939
BELLE-ISLE Bretagne 56 1573 de Gondi-Retz Extinct 1789
BELLE-ISLE Bretagne 56 1668 Fouquet de Belle-Isle Extinct 1789
BELLENAVES Bourbon 03 c1670 de Rochechouart-Champdeniers Extant
BELLEVILLE-sur-MER Normandie 76 c1752 de Belleville Extant
BÉNAC Bigorre 65 1612 de Montault-Bénac Extant
BÉNÉHART Maine 72 1649 de Maillé-Bénéhart Extinct?
BÉNOUVILLE Normandie 14 1752 Gillain de Bénouville Extinct c1792
BERCY Île-de-France 94 Louis XIV de Malon de Bercy Extinct 1871
BERNIÈRES Normandie 76 1678 Maignart de Bernières Extant
BERNY Île-de-France 94 c1653 de Lionne Extinct 1789
BERSAILLIN Fr.Comté 39 1748 de Froissard(-Bersaillin) Extant
BERTOULT d'OEUFS Artois 62 1766 de Bertoult de Hauteclocque Extant
BÉRULLE Champagne 10 1720 de Bérulle Extinct c1950
BESANCEUIL Bourgogne 71 c1720 de Prisque Extant
BESMAUX Armagnac 32 1657 de Montlezun-Pardiac Extant
BEUVRON Normandie 14 1593 de Harcourt-Beuvron Duchy 1784
BEYNAC Périgord 24 1619 de Beynac Extant
BIÈVRE Île-de-France 91 1770 Mareschal de Bièvre Extant
BIGNY Berry 18 c1640 de Chevenon de Bigny Extant
BIRAN Armagnac 32 1657 de Roquelaure Extinct 1884
BIRON Périgord 24 1651 de Gontaut-Biron Extant
BIZY Normandie 27 1675 Jubert de Bouville Extant
BLACONS Dauphiné 26 c1750 d'Armand de Forest de Mirabel Extinct 1805
BLAIN Bretagne 44 c1548 de Rohan-Gié Extant
BLAIN Bretagne 44 1660 de Rohan-Gié Extant
BLAINVILLE Lorraine 54 1629 de Lenoncourt Extinct
BLAINVILLE Normandie 14 1680 Colbert de Seignelay Extinct 1875
BLAINVILLE Normandie 76 Louis XIV de Tourzel d'Alègre Extinct
le BLANC Berry 36 1664 d'Aloigny de Rochefort Extinct 1794
BLANCHEFORT Languedoc 11 1680 d'Hautpoul de Rennes Extant
BLANGY Normandie 14 1780 le Viconte de Blangy Extant
BLANQUEFORT Guyenne 33 c1670 de Durfort-Duras Extinct 1838
BLARU Île-de-France 78 1659 de Tilly-Blaru Extinct 1855
BLÉRANCOURT Picardie 02 Louis XIII Potier de Gesvres Extinct 1839
BOIRY Artois 62 c1750 Quarré de Boiry Extant
le BOIS-de-la-MUSSE Bretagne 44 1651 Blanchard de la Muce Extinct
BOIS-DAUPHIN Maine 72 c1640 de (Montmorency-)Laval-Boisdauphin Extinct 1835
le BOIS-FÉVRIER Bretagne 35 1674 de Langan Extinct 1795
BOISRAGON Poitou 79 c1780 de Chevaleau Extinct 1839
BOISSEZON Albigeois 81 c1760 Barbara de la Belloterie Extant
BOISY Forez 42 1564 Gouffier de Roannais Extinct 1802
BOLLWILLER Alsace 68 1739 de Rosen Extant
BONAC Foix 09 1685 d'Usson de Bonac Extinct 1821
BONAS Armagnac 32 1629 de Pardaillan de Séailles Extinct 1836
BONAS Armagnac 32 1773 de Mellet Extinct 1836
BONNECOURT Champagne 52 1685 de Capizuchi de Bologne Extinct 1794
BONNEGUISE Périgord 24 1762 de Bonneguise-Badefols Extinct 18__
BONNEUIL Poitou 86 c1765 de Vernou de Bonneuil Extant
BONNEVAL Limousin 87 c1655 de Bonneval Extant
BONNEVAL Normandie 27 1677 du Val de Bonneval Extinct 1949
BONNIVET Poitou 86 c1600 Gouffier de Bonnivet Extinct 1865
la BORDE Bourgogne 21 1645 Brulart de la Borde Extinct 1918
BORN Agenais 47 1724 de Belsunce-Castelmoron Extinct 1796
BOUC Provence 13 1690 de Séguiran Name change 1767
le BOUCHET-VALGRAND Île-de-France 91 1720 le Bas de Montargis Extant
BOUCLANS Fr.Comté 25 1749 le Bas de Clevans Extant
BOUILLÉ Maine 53 c1615 de Bouillé Extinct 1836
la BOULAYE Bourgogne 71 1619 de Rochefort Extant
la BOULAYE Bourgogne 71 1696 Gigault de Bellefonds Extant
BOURBONNE Champagne 52 c1620 de Livron Extinct 1805
la BOURDAISIÈRE Touraine 37 1717 de Courcillon-Dangeau Extant
BOURDEILLE Périgord 24 1609 de Bourdeille County 17__
le BOURDET Poitou 79 mid 16__ Acarie du Bourdet Extant
la BOURDONNAYE Bretagne 56 1717 de la Bourdonnaye Extant
BOURNAZEL Rouergue 12 1624 de Buisson de Bournazel Extinct 1864
BOURY Île-de-France 60 1652 de Pellevé Extant
BOURY Île-de-France 60 1686 Aubourg de Boury Extant
BOUTETIÈRES Dauphiné 38 1676 Emé de Marcieu Extant
BOUTEVILLE Angoumois 16 Louis XIII de Béon de Luxembourg Extinct 1883
BOUVILLE Normandie 76 1698 Jubert de Bouville Extinct 1793
BOUZOLS Velay 43 c1630 de Montagut de Beaune Extinct 1834
BOVES Picardie 80 1630 de Moy-Riberpré Extinct
BOYNES Orléanais 45 c1774 Bourgeois de Boynes Extant
BOZAS Vivarais 07 1693 du Bourg de Bozas Extant
BRANGES Bourgogne 21 1655 de Barillon d'Amoncourt Extinct 1890
BRANTES Comtat 84 1674 des Laurents Extinct 1848
BRAZAIS Normandie 27 Louis XV Dyel de Clermont d'Enneval Extant
BRAZEUX Île-de-France 91 Louis XIII Gouffier d'Heilly Extinct
BRESSIEUX Dauphiné 38 1612 de Grolée de Mevouillon Extinct
BRETAGNE Bretagne 35 753 non-hereditary Dissolved 845
la BRETESCHE Bretagne 44 1657 Jousseaume de la Bretesche Extant
BRETEUIL Île-de-France 78 1743 le Tonnelier de Breteuil Extant
le BREUIL Bourgogne 71 1670 de Chargères du Breuil Extant
BRÉVAL Île-de-France 78 1623 de Harlay de Champvallon Extinct 1861
BRÉZÉ Anjou 49 1615 de Maillé-Brézé Extant
BRÉZÉ Anjou 49 1685 de Dreux-Brézé Extant
BRÉZOLLES Perche 28 1660 de Broglie Extinct 1824
BRIDORÉ Touraine 37 1651 de Boursault Extinct 1789
BRINON Guadeloupe 971 1738 de Senneterre Extinct 1793
BRINON Guadeloupe 971 1755 Pinel Extinct 1793
BRINVILLIERS Picardie 60 1660 Gobelin-l'Escalopier Name change 1700
BRION Gévaudan 48 1756 de Michel du Roc de Brion Extant
BROC Anjou 49 1758 de Broc Extinct 1916
BROISSIA Fr.Comté 39 1691 Froissard de Broissia Extant
BROISSIA Fr.Comté 39 1697 Froissard de Broissia Extant
les BROSSES Poitou 16 c1740 d'Assier des Brosses Extinct 1914
BRÜE Provence 83 1750 Roux de Corse Extinct 1792
BRUN Fr.Comté 25 1694 de Brun Extant
BRUNOY Île-de-France 91 1737 Paris de Montmartel Duchy 1775
BRUYÈRES-le-CHÂTEL Île-de-France 91 1676 Lespinette de Meirat Extinct 1886
BRUYÈRES-le-CHÂTEL Île-de-France 91 1731 Lespinette de Meirat Extinct 1886
la BUSSIÈRE Artois 62 1663 de Maulde Extinct 1844
la BUSSIÈRE Orléanais 45 1679 du Tillet Extinct 18__
BUSSY-le-CHÂTEAU Champagne 51 1699 d'Arnolet de la Rochefontaine Extinct
BUSSY-le-CHÂTEAU Champagne 51 1703 d'Arnolet de la Rochefontaine Extinct
BUZANCY Champagne 08 1658 d'Anglure Extinct 1805


CABRIS Provence 06 c1750 de Clapiers-Cabris Extinct 1813
CAGNES Provence 06 1677 Grimaldi de Cagnes Extinct 1895
CAMPELS Comminges 31 c1690 de Boussost de Bazillac Extinct 1878
CAMPET Gascogne 40 1731 du Lyon de Campet Extinct 1914
CANDAU Béarn 64 1718 de Nays Extinct 1913
CANILLAC Gévaudan 48 c1400 Rogier de Beaufort Dissolved 1731
CANISY Normandie 50 1619 de Carbonnel Extant
le CANNET Provence 83 1746 de Rascas Extant
CANY-BARVILLE Normandie 76 1648 le Marinier Extinct 1878
CARADEUC Bretagne 22 1779 de Caradeuc de la Chalotais Extinct 1859
CARDAILLAC Quercy 46 1645 de Cardaillac Extant
CARENCY Artois 62 1665 Toustain de Frontebosc Extinct
CARMAN Bretagne 29 1612 de Maillé de l'Islette Extinct 1789
CARMAUX Albigeois 81 Louis XIV de Ciron Extant
CARMAUX Albigeois 81 1731 de Solages Extant
CARMAUX Albigeois 81 1763 de Solages Extant
CASSAGNE-MIRAMON Auvergne 15 1768 de Cassagne de Beaufort de Miramon Extant
CASTÉJA Gascogne 40 c1600 de Biaudos de Castéja Extant
CASTELBAJAC Bigorre 65 c1610 de Durfort-Castelbajac Extinct 1802
CASTELMORON Agenais 47 c1620 de Caumont-la Force Extinct
CASTELNAU Berry 18 1652 de Castelnau-Jonville Extinct 1835
CASTELNAU-d'ESTRETEFONDS Languedoc 31 c1537 de Vabres Extinct
CASTELNAU-LALOUBÈRE Bigorre 65 1666 de Castelnau Extinct
CASTELNAUD Périgord 24 c1600 de Caumont-la Force Extinct
CASTELVIEL Bigorre 65 1724 d'Aignan Extinct 1802
CASTILLY Normandie 14 1683 de Boran Extinct
CASTRIES Languedoc 34 1645 de la Croix-Castries Duchy 1784
CAULAINCOURT Picardie 02 1714 de Caulaincourt Extinct 1896
CAUMONT Agenais 47 Louis XIV de Caumont-la Force Extant
CAUMONT Comtat 84 c1722 de Seytres de Caumont Duchy 1789
CAUSANS Dauphiné 84 1667 de Vincens de Causans Extant
CAUSANS Dauphiné 84 1679 de Vincens de Causans Extant
CAUX Languedoc 34 c1730 Roger de Cahuzac Extinct 1889
le CAUZÉ-de-NAZELLE Champagne 02 1753 du Cauzé de Nazelle Extant
CAYLUS Quercy 82 Louis XV de Tubières Duchy 1783
CÉPOY Orléanais 45 1748 Bouvier de la Motte Extinct 1918
CÉRESTE Provence 04 1674 de Brancas-Céreste Duchy 1785
CESSAC Quercy 46 Louis XIV Bérail de Cazillac Extinct
CHABANAIS Angoumois 16 1715 Colbert de Saint-Pouange Extant
CHABRILLAN Dauphiné 26 1674 de Guigues de Moreton Extinct 1950
CHABRIS Berry 36 c1620 de Béthune-Chabris Extinct 1833
CHAFFARDON Savoie 73 1682 d'Oncieu de Chaffardon Extant
CHAILLOT Fr.Comté 70 1746 de Chaillot Extinct 19__
CHAILLOU Touraine 36 1782 Amelot de Chaillou Extinct 1911
CHALABRE Languedoc 11 c1745 de Bruyères-Chalabre Extinct 1832
CHALENCON Velay 43 1614 de (Chalencon-)Polignac Extant
CHALLES Savoie 73 1669 Milliet de Challes Extant
CHALUSSET Limousin 87 1644 Bonnin de Chalusset Extinct 1824
CHAMBERET Limousin 19 c1600 de Pierrebuffière Extinct 1820
CHAMBONAS Vivarais 07 1683 de la Garde de Chambonas Extinct 1927
CHAMBRAY Normandie 27 Louis XIV de Chambray Extinct 1948
la CHAMBRE Savoie 73 1562 de Seyssel-la Chambre Extinct 19__
CHAMPCENETZ Île-de-France 91 1686 Quentin de la Vienne Extinct 1849
CHAMPLAY Champagne 89 c1690 Bollé Extinct 1844
CHAMPVALLON Champagne 89 c1670 de Harlay Extinct
CHANTÉRAC Périgord 24 1744 de la Cropte de Chantérac Extant
la CHAPELLE-la-REINE Île-de-France 77 1680 d'Argouges Extinct 1815
CHAPPES Champagne 10 Louis XIV d'Aumont-Villequier Extinct 19__
la CHARCE Dauphiné 26 1619 de la Tour-du-Pin de la Charce Extant
CHARETTE Bretagne 44 1775 de Charette de la Gascherie Extinct 1792
CHARLEVAL Provence 13 early 17__ de Cadenet de la Tour Extant
CHARNACÉ Anjou 49 c1673 de Girard de Charnacé Extant
CHARRAS Angoumois 16 Louis XV de la Laurencie-Charras Extinct 1857
la CHARTE-sur-le-LOIR Maine 72 1697 de Courtoux Extant
la CHASSE Bretagne 35 1670 d'Andigné de la Chasse Extinct 1879
CHASSINGRIMONT Berry 36 mid 16__ d'Aubusson-Chassingrimont Extinct?
le CHASTEL Bretagne 22 1714 Crozat du Chastel Extinct 1789
le CHASTELER Hainaut 59 1725 du Chasteler Extinct 1908
le CHASTELER Hainaut 59 1769 du Chasteler Extinct 1908
CHÂTEAUBRUN Berry 36 early 17__ de Montmorency-Châteaubrun Extant
CHÂTEAUFRÉMONT Bretagne 44 1683 de Cornulier Extant
CHÂTEAUGIRON Bretagne 35 1701 le Prestre de Lezonnet Extinct 1848
CHÂTEAU-GONTIER Anjou 53 1656 de Bailleul Extinct 1831
CHÂTEAU-l'ARC Provence 13 1685 de Boutassy-Guérin Extant 1796
CHÂTEAUMORAND Forez 42 1625 de Lévis-Châteaumorand Extant
CHÂTEAUMORAND Limousin 87 1668 Joubert de la Bastide Extant
CHÂTEAUNEUF Bretagne 35 1702 de Beringhen Name change 1746
CHÂTEAUNEUF-la-FORÊT Limousin 87 1615 de Pierrebuffière Extinct 1820
CHÂTEAUNEUF(-le-CHARBONNIER) Provence 04 1727 de Meyronnet-Châteauneuf Extinct 1913
CHÂTEUNEUF(-le-ROUGE) Provence 13 1723 de Gautier de Gironton Extinct
CHÂTEAUNEUF(-sur-CHER) Berry 18 c1630 de l'Aubespine-Châteauneuf Extinct 1861
CHÂTEAUNEUF(-sur-CHER) Berry 18 1681 Colbert Extinct 1861
CHÂTEAUNEUF(-sur-LOIRE) Orléanais 45 1671 Phélypeaux de la Vrillière Extant
CHÂTEAUNEUF(-sur-LOIRE) Orléanais 45 1715 Phélypeaux de la Vrillière Extant
CHÂTEAUNEUF(-sur-SARTHE) Anjou 49 1750 Amelot de Chaillou Extinct 1832
CHÂTEAU-RENARD Provence 13 Louis XIV Aimar d'Albi Extinct 1849
CHÂTEAU-RENAUD Bourgogne 71 1752 de Mailly de Châteaurenaud Extinct 1819
CHÂTEAURENAULT Touraine 37 1620 de Rousselet Extinct 1793
CHÂTEAURENAULT Touraine 37 1704 de Rousselet Extinct 1793
CHÂTEAURENAULT Touraine 37 1752 d'Estaing de Saillans Extinct 1793
CHÂTEAUROUX Berry 36 1616 de Bourbon-Condé Duchy 1627
CHÂTEAUVIEUX Dauphiné 05 c1733 d'Armand de Châteauvieux Extant
CHÂTEAUVIEUX Savoie 74 1785 Lullin de Châteauvieux Extinct 1850
CHÂTELAILLON Aunis 17 c1725 Green de Saint-Marsault Extant
le CHÂTELET Bretagne 35 1682 Hay du Châtelet Extinct 1985
le CHÂTELET Lorraine 88 c1625 du Châtelet-Thon Extant
le CHÂTELLIER(-le-FORT) Touraine 37 1640 de Pierrebuffière Extant
CHÂTENOIS Fr.Comté 70 1705 de Saint-Mauris de Châtenois Extinct 1910
CHAUMONT Savoie 74 1681 Deschamps Extinct 19__
CHAUSSIN Bourgogne 39 1573 de Lorraine-Mercoeur Barony 1602
CHAUSSIN Bourgogne 39 1692 de Bourbon-Condé Extinct
CHAUSSIN Bourgogne 39 1724 de Bourbon-Condé Extinct
CHAUSSIN Bourgogne 39 1766 de Poly Extinct
CHAVAGNAC Auvergne 15 1720 de Chavagnac Extant
CHEF-BOUTONNE Poitou 79 1713 Phélypeaux de Pontchartrain Extinct 1794
CHEF-BOUTONNE Poitou 79 1742 Roujault Extinct 1794
CHEFFONTAINES Bretagne 29 1766 de Penfentenio de Cheffontaines Extant
CHENON Angoumois 16 c1775 Desmier de Chenon Extant
CHÉRISEY Lorraine 57 c1720 de Chérisey Extant
CHERVAL Périgord 24 c1780 de Lagéard de Cherval Extinct 1855
la CHESNELAYE Bretagne 35 1641 de Romilley Extinct 1823
la CHÉTARDIE Angoumois 16 Louis XIV Trotti de la Chétardie Extinct
la CHEVALERIE Poitou 79 1788 Aymer de la Chevalerie Extant
CHEVRIÈRES Dauphiné 38 1682 de la Croix de Chevrières Extinct 1903
CHIGNIN Savoie 73 ? ? Extinct 1794
CHILLY Île-de-France 91 1624 Coëffier d'Effiat Extant
CHOISINET Gévaudan 48 c1650 de la Tour de Bains-Saint-Vidal Extinct
CHOISY(-aux-LOGES) Orléanais 45 1599 de l'Hôpital-Choisy Duchy 1646
CHOLET Anjou 49 c1630 Barjot de Moussy Extinct 1839
CHOLET Anjou 49 1677 Colbert de Maulévrier Extinct 1839
CINGÉ Touraine 37 c1670 de Crevant-Cingé Extinct 1826
CINQ-MARS(-la-PILE) Touraine 37 c1638 Coëffier de Ruzé d'Effiat Extant
CIPIÈRES Nice 06 Louis XIV Bouthillier de Chavigny Extant
CIRCÉ Poitou 79 1663 Foucher de Circé Extinct 1917
CIREY-sur-BLAISE Champagne 52 mid 16__ du Châtelet-Pierrefitte Duchy 1777
CIVRAC Guyenne 33 1647 de Durfort-Civrac Extinct 1884
CLAIRAN Languedoc 30 1668 d'Airebaudouse Extant
CLAIRVAUX Fr.Comté 39 early 17__ de Bauffremont-Scey Extant
CLAM Aunis 17 ? ? Extant
CLAUSONNETTE Languedoc 30 c1770 de Roques de Clausonnette Extinct 1870
CLÈRES Normandie 76 1651 de Presteval Extinct 1793
CLERMONT-d'ENTRAGUES Agenais 47 1617 de Balsac d'Entragues Extinct
CLERVAUX Poitou 86 1620 d'Aumont-Villequier Extant
CLERVAUX Poitou 86 1766 de Chérade de Montbron Extant
CLUSES Savoie 74 1700 Martin du Fresnoy Extinct 1824
CODOLET Languedoc 30 1622 d'Ancezune-Cadart Extinct 1865
COËTANFAO Bretagne 56 c1710 de Kerhoent-Coëtanfao Extinct 18__
COËTLOGON Bretagne 22 1622 de Coëtlogon Extant
COËTMADEUC Bretagne 56 Louis XIV de Lopriac Extinct 1794
COËTMEUR Bretagne 29 1593 de Tournemine Extant
COËTQUEN Bretagne 22 1575 de Coëtquen Extinct 1838
COEUVRES Picardie 02 1585 d'Estrées Extinct 1888
COISLIN Bretagne 44 1634 du Cambout de Coislin Extinct 1887
COISLIN Bretagne 44 1656 du Cambout de Coislin Extinct 1887
COLIGNY-le-VIEIL Fr.Comté 39 1617 de Coligny-Châtillon Extant
COLIGNY-le-VIEIL Fr.Comté 39 1718 von Sandersleben Extant
COLIGNY-le-VIEIL Fr.Comté 39 1747 de Pillot de Chenecey Extant
COLLEVILLE(-sur-MER) Normandie 14 Louis XV de Marguerye Extinct 1947
COLOMBIERS Touraine 37 1619 le Breton de Villandry Name change 1639
COMBRONDE Auvergne 63 1564 du Puy-du-Fou Extinct 1797
COMBRONDE Auvergne 63 1637 du Puy-du-Fou Extinct 1797
COMBRONDE Auvergne 63 Louis XVI de Capony Extinct 1797
COMEIRAS Languedoc 30 c1759 Delpuech de Comeiras Extant
COMPIÈGNE Champagne 77 1640 Dupont de Compiègne Extant
CONFLANS Savoie 73 1621 de Watteville de Joux Principality 1769
CONROS Auvergne 15 Louis XIV de Saint-Martial Extinct 1838
CONS-la-GRANDVILLE Lorraine 54 1719 de Lambertye Extant
CONSTANT-de-REBECQUE Artois 62 1578 de Constant Extant
CONTY Picardie 80 1557 de Bourbon-Condé Extinct 1839
COPPOLA Comtat 84 1755 de Gaudemaris Extant
CORBEAU-de-VAULSERRE Dauphiné 38 1751 de Corbeau de Vaulserre Extinct 1976
COSNAC Limousin 19 c1650 de Cosnac Extant
la COSTE Bretagne 22 mid 16__ du Gouray Extinct 1831
la COSTE Bretagne 22 1720 Andrault de Langeron Extinct 1831
la COSTE-MESSELIÈRE Poitou 86 c1695 Frotier de la Coste-Messelière Extant
COUBLANS Champagne 52 1547 d'Anglure Extinct
COUCY Picardie 02 1668 d'Orléans Extant
le COUDRAY-MONTPENSIER Touraine 37 c1640 d'Escoubleau du Coudray Extinct 1920
la COUDRAYE Poitou 85 c1760 de Loynes de la Coudraye Extant
COUDRÉE Savoie 74 1655 d'Allinges Extinct 1840
COUHÉ-VÉRAC Poitou 86 1652 de Saint-Georges de Vérac Extinct 1858
COUPIGNY Normandie 27 Henri IV du Quesnel de Coupigny Extinct
COURBONS Provence 04 1646 Grimaldi de Cagnes Extinct 1850
COURBONS Provence 04 1677 de Brancas-Rochefort Extinct 1850
COURBONS Provence 04 1717 de Roux de Gaubert Extinct 1850
COURCELLES Maine 72 1667 de Champlais Extinct 1898
COURCENAY Berry 36 1739 de Boisé de Courcenay Extant
COURCIVAL Maine 72 c1770 Stellaye de Baigneux de Courcival Extant

COURCY-aux-LOGES Orléanais 45 1681 de Bullion-Courcy Extant
COURCY-aux-LOGES Orléanais 45 1749 Roussel de Courcy Extant
COURSEULLES Champagne 89 1661 de Courseulles du Han Extant
COURTANVAUX Maine 72 1609 de Souvré Extant
COURTEBOURNE Artois 62 1671 de Calonne de Courtebourne Extinct 1887
COURTEMANCHE Maine 72 Louis XV le Maire de Courtemanche Extinct 1877
COURTIVRON Bourgogne 21 1698 le Compasseur de Créqui-Montfort Extant
COURTOMER Normandie 61 1620 (Simon) de Saint-Simon Extinct 1816
COURVILLE Chartrain 28 1656 de Béthune-Sully Extinct 1970
COUTURELLE Artois 62 1759 Boudart de Couturelle Extinct 1840
CRAMAYEL Île-de-France 77 1772 Fontaine de Cramayel Extinct 1982
CRAMBES Rouergue 12 mid 17__ d'Aiguy de Crambes Extinct 19__
CRAON Lorraine 54 1712 de Beauvau-Craon Name change 1767
CRAON Lorraine 54 1768 de Beauvau-Craon Extinct 1982
CRÉNAN Bretagne 22 1685 de Perrien de Crénan Extinct 1836
CRÉNAY Normandie 50 c1720 de Poilvilain de Crénay Extinct 1857
CRÉNOLLE Bretagne 22 1779 de Quengo de Crénolle Extant
CRÉQUY Picardie 62 Louis XIV de Blanchefort-Créquy Extinct 1794
CRÈVECOEUR Picardie 60 c1650 Gouffier de Bonnivet Extant
CRÈVECOEUR Picardie 60 1696 de Hanivel de Mannevillette Extant
CRILLON Comtat 84 late 16__ de Berton de Balbes duchy 1725
CROISMARE Lorraine 54 1767 de Croismare Extinct 1842
CROMIÈRES Limousin 87 Louis XV de Bermondet Extant
CROS Limousin 87 c1675 de Brettes Extant
CRUZY(-le-CHÂTEL) Bourgogne 89 1620 de Clermont-Tonnerre Extinct 1844
CUCÉ Bretagne 35 1643 de Bourgneuf Extinct 1794
CUMOND Périgord 24 Louis XV d'Arlot de Cumond Extant
CURTON Guyenne 33 1563 de Chabannes-Curton Extant


DAMMARTIN Champagne 52 1719 de Rose-Dammartin Extinct 1846 alias marquisat de ROSE-DAMMARTIN
DAMPIERRE Champagne 10 1645 Picot de Dampierre Extinct 1871
Orléanais 45 1616 de Cugnac de Dampierre Extinct 1882 

DAMPIERRE (-le-VIEIL)Champagne 51 1649 de l'Aubespine Extinct 

DANGEAU Chartrain 28 c1665 de Courcillon-Dangeau Extinct 1802
les DEFFENDS Poitou 86 1585 Gouffier de Bonnivet Extinct
DESTILLY Touraine 37 1667 de Valory de Destilly Extinct 1898
la DEVÈZE Languedoc 34 Louis XIV de Clerc de la Devèze Extinct 1892 uncertain marquisate
DINTEVILLE Champagne 51 c1635 de Bussy-Brion Extinct 1828
DINTEVILLE Champagne 51 1647 le Goux de la Berchère Extinct 1828 confirmation of the previous title
DINTEVILLE Champagne 51 1703 le Brun de Dinteville Extinct 1828 confirmation of the previous title
MALFIANCE Artois 62 1787 de Dion de Wandonne Extinct 1826 

DOLOMIEU Dauphiné 38 1688 de Gratet de Dolomieu Extinct 1843
DORMANS Champagne 51 1671 de Broglie Extinct 1830
la DOUZE Périgord 24 1615 d'Abzac de la Douze Extant held by du Cheyron de Beaumont (d'Abzac) since 1943 through adoption
DRÉE Bourgogne 71 1767 de Drée Extant
DROMESNIL Picardie 80 1676 de Hallencourt-Dromesnil Extinct 1889
DUNES Agenais 82 1713 de la Chabanne Extinct 1907
DURAS Agenais 47 1609 de Durfort-Duras Duchy 1668
DURFORT Languedoc 30 c1715 de Génas Extant held by de Cadolle since 1737


ECHAUFFOUR Normandie 61 1648 Erard-le Gris Extinct
ECQUEVILLY Île-de-France 78 1724 Hennequin d'Ecquevilly Extinct 1870 named after the previous marquisate
ECQUEVILLY Normandie ? c1680 Hennequin d'Ecquevilly Extinct or in Picardie (Beauvaisis)?
EFFIAT Auvergne 63 1627 Coëffier de Ruzé Extinct 1924
ÉGUILLY Bourgogne 21 1763 de Mac-Mahon Extant
ÉIRRON Normandie 50 1738 de Jendernai-Eirron Extant heir apparent is known by the subsidiary title of Viscomte Jendernai
ELBEUF Normandie 76 1554 de Lorraine-Elbeuf Duchy 1581
ENTRECASTEAUX Provence 83 1676 de Castellane-Adhémar de Monteil Extinct 1793
ENTRECASTEAUX Provence 83 1714 de Bruny d'Entrecasteaux Extinct 1793 confirmation of the previous title
ÉPOISSES Bourgogne 21 1613 d'Ancienville de Bourdillon Extant held by de Pechpeyrou-Comminges de Guitaut since 1661
EQUIRRE Artois 62 1712 de Partz de Pressy Extinct 1974
ESCLIGNAC Armagnac 32 early 17__ de Preissac d'Esclignac Duchy 1787
ESPAGNY Picardie 80 mid 16__ Gouffier d'Espagny Extinct 19xx
ESPARRON Dauphiné 05 1651 de Simiane-Esparron Extinct 1805
ESPARRON Provence 04 1703 de Castellane-Esparron Extant held by the branche de Castellane-Novejan since 1790
ESPEUILLES Nivernais 58 c1680 de Jaucourt Extant held by Viel de Lunas since 17__
ESPEUILLES Nivernais 58 1705 Girard d'Espeuilles Extant confirmation of the previous title
ESPIÉS Picardie 60 1655 de Cossart d'Espiés Extant raised through brevet royal
ESPINAY Bretagne 35 1575 d'Espinay Extinct 1848
ESPINOUSE Provence 04 1651 de Coriolis d'Espinouse Extant
ESTIAU Anjou 49 Louis XIII d'Estampes-Valencay Extinct 1916 alias ETIAU
ESTIAU Anjou 49 1702 Croiset d'Estiau Extinct 1916 confirmation of the previous title
ESTISSAC Périgord 24 mid 16__ de Roye de la Rochefoucauld Duchy 1737
ESTOUBLON Provence 04 1664 de Grille d'Estoublon Extinct 1924 certain sources state 1674
ESTOURMEL Hainaut 59 c1680 (Créton) d'Estourmel Extinct 1978
ÉVERLY Île-de-France 77 1626 de la Vallée-Fossez Extinct 1875
ÉVRY-les-CHÂTEAUX Île-de-France 77 1724 Brunet d'Évry Extant


FALLETANS Fr.Comté 25 1712 de Falletans Extinct 1848
la FARE Languedoc 30 1646 de la Fare-Monclar Extinct 1828
la FARE Languedoc 30 1754 de la Fare-Vénéjan Extant
la FARE Languedoc 30 1767 de la Fare-Vénéjan Extant Confirmation of the previous title
la FARE Provence 13 1768 Ruffo-Bonneval de la Fare Extant
la FARE Provence 13 1787 Ruffo-Bonneval de la Fare Extant Confirmation of the previous title
FAUDOAS Languedoc 82 1650 de Rochechouart-Barbazan d'Astarac Extinct 1791
le FAULIN Nivernais 89 mid 16__ le Bourgoing du Faulin Extinct? uncertain marquisate
FAULQUEMONT Lorraine 57 1629 de Haraucourt Extinct 1793 by the duc de Lorraine
FAVERGES Savoie 74 1644 Milliet de Faverges Extant by the duc de Savoie
la FAYETTE Auvergne 63 c1690 du Motier de la Fayette Extinct 1890
FAYOLLE Périgord 24 1724 de Fayolle Extant
FAYOLLE Poitou 86 1775 du Rousseau de Fayolle Extant probably courtesy title
FENOYL Lyonnais 69 1720 de Fenoyl Extant held by de Gayardon de Crésolles since 1724
FERNOËL Auvergne 63 1721 de Veyny d'Arbouze de Marcillac Extant held by de Boisé de Courcenay since 1764
FERRIÈRES Quercy 46 1723 du Bruelh Extinct 1822
FERRIÈRES-en-BRIE Île-de-France 77 1600 de Marillac Extinct
FERRIÈRES-en-BRIE Île-de-France 77 1692 de Labriffe Extinct Confirmation of the previous title
FERRIÈRES-le-MAISTRE Picardie 60 1665 le Maistre de Ferrières Extinct c1820
la FERRONAYS Bretagne 29 1756 de Ferron de la Ferronays Extinct 1944 Probably only courtesy title
la FERTÉ-BEAUHARNAIS Blésois 41 1756 de Beauharnais Extinct 1974
la FERTÉ-IMBAULT Blésois 41 1651 d'Éstampes Extinct 1828
la FERTÉ-SENNETERRE Orléanais 45 1616 de Senneterre Extinct 1829 Duchy between 1665 and 1703; also called la FERTÉ-LOWENDAL from 1748
FERVAQUES Normandie 14 Louis XIV de Bullion Extinct 1871
FEUQUIÈRES Île-de-France 60 1646 de Pas de Feuquières Extant held by de Grasse de Limermont since 1763
FIENNES Flandre 59 1698 de Fiennes Extant held by le Maistre d'Esplechin since 1727
FIENNES Picardie 62 1643 d'Éstampes-Valencay Extinct
FIMARCON Guyenne 32 1503 de Lomagne-Fimarcon Extinct 1873 Second oldest marquisate raised by French king
FLAMANVILLE Normandie 50 1654 Bazan de Flamanville Extinct 1820
FLAMARENS Armagnac 32 c1650 de Grossolles-Flamarens Extinct 1879
FLAVACOURT Île-de-France 60 1637 de Fouilleuse Extinct 1947
FLAYOSC Provence 83 1678 de Périer de Flayosc Extant held by de Villeneuve-Flayosc since 1697
la FLOCELLIÈRE Poitou 85 1616 de Maillé-Brézé Extinct 1795
la FLOCELLIÈRE Poitou 85 1697 de Puyguyon Extinct 1795 confirmation of the previous title
la FLOCELLIÈRE Poitou 85 1715 de Granges de Surgères Extinct 1795 confirmation of the previous title
FLORESSAS Quercy 46 1704 de Brachet de Floressas Extinct 1924
FOLIN Bourgogne 21 1717 de Folin Extant alias marquisat de VILLECOMTE
FONTENAY Normandie 50 1673 le Berceur de Fontenay Extinct
FONTENAY-MAREUIL Île-de-France 95 1623 du Val de Fontenay-Mareuil Extinct 1794
FONTENAY-TRÉSIGNY Île-de-France 77 1691 le Tonnelier de Breteuil Extant alias marquisat de TRÉSIGNY; held by de Noailles since 1754
FONTENILLES Languedoc 31 1658 de la Roche-Fontenilles Extinct 1930
la FORCE Périgord 24 1609 de Caumont-Castelnau Duchy 1637
FORS Poitou 79 1639 Poussard du Vigean Extinct 1794
FORS Poitou 79 1693 Maboul de Fors Extinct 1794 confirmation of the previous title
FOS Provence 13 1140 de (Marseille-)Fos Extinct feudal marquisate for cadet line of vicomtes de MARSEILLE
FOSSEUSE Île-de-France 60 1772 Thomé Extinct confirmation of earlier marquisat de FOSSEUX
FOSSEUX Île-de-France 60 c1670 de Montmorency-Fosseux Extinct later renamed FOSSEUSE
FOX(-AMPHOUX) Provence 83 1719 d'Albert du Chaîne Extinct?
FOURILLES Bourbon 03 1610 de Chauméjéan Extinct 1904
FOURILLES Bourbon 03 1648 le Lièvre de la Grange Extinct 1904 confirmation of the previous title
FOURILLES Poitou 86 1662 de Chauméjéan de Fourilles Extinct 1844
FOURQUEVAUX Languedoc 31 1687 Beccarie de Pavie Extinct 1841
FRANCIÈRES Champagne 52 c1630 de Choiseul-Francières Extinct
FRANCLIEU Bigorre 65 1767 de Pasquier de Franclieu Extant held by the line de Pasquier de Caussade since 1839
FRESNOY Île-de-France 60 1652 de Fresnoy Extant inherited by Renaud d'Avesne des Méloizes 1776
FROLOIS Lorraine 54 1757 de Ludre-Frolois Extinct 19__ by the duc de Lorraine; alias marquisat de LUDRE-FROLOIS
FROMENTEAU Bretagne 44 1760 Barrin de Fromenteau Extinct 1841
FRONSAC Guyenne 33 1555 d'Albon de Saint-André Duchy 1608
FRONTENAY Fr.Comté 39 1743 de Montrichard Extant alias marquisat de MONTRICHARD
FRUGIE Périgord 24 c1700 d'Arlot de la Coussière Extant uncertain marquisate; held by the line d'Arlot de Cumond since 1753

Bénichou, Paul. Morales du grand siècle. Paris: Gallimard, 1948. ISBN 2-07-032473-7
Bluche, François. L'Ancien Régime: Institutions et société. Collection: Livre de poche. Paris: Fallois, 1993. ISBN 2-253-06423-8
Chaussinand-Nogaret, Guy. "The French Nobility in the Eighteenth Century". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Ford, Franklin L. "Robe & Sword: The Regrouping of the French Aristocracy after Louis XIV". Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1953.
Dioudonnat, Pierre-Marie. Encyclopedie de la Fauss Noblesse et de la Noblesse d'Apparence. New ed. Paris: Sedopols, 1994.
La Chesnaye-Desbois et Badier, François de (comp). Dictionnaire de la Noblesse de la France. 3d ed. 18v. Paris: Bachelin-Deflorenne, 1868-73 (Kraus-Thomson Organization, 1969).
Major, J. Russell. From Renaissance Monarchy to Absolute Monarchy: French Kings, Nobles & Estates. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1994. ISBN 0-8018-5631-0
Elias, Norbert. The Court Society. (Originally publ., 1969) New York: Pantheon, 1983. ISBN 0-394-71604-3
Pillorget, René and Suzanne Pillorget. France Baroque, France Classique 1589-1715. Collection: Bouquins. Paris: Laffont, 1995. ISBN 2-221-08110-2
Soboul, Albert. La Révolution française. Paris: Editions Sociales, 1982. ISBN 2-209-05513-X
Viguerie, Jean de. Histoire et dictionnaire du temps des Lumières 1715-1789. Collection: Bouquins. Paris: Laffont, 1995. ISBN 2-221-04810-5
Wright, Gordon. France in Modern Times. 4th ed. New York: Norton, 1987. ISBN 0-393-95582-6


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