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Kingdom of Norway
Kongeriket Norge -  Kongeriket Noreg
Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and the subantarctic Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres (148,747 sq mi) and a population of about 5 million. It is the second least densely populated country in Europe. The majority of the country shares a border to the east with Sweden; its northernmost region is bordered by Finland to the south and Russia to the east; in its south Norway borders the Skagerrak Strait across from Denmark. The capital city of Norway is Oslo. Norway's extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, is home to its famous fjords.

Two centuries of Viking raids tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav Tryggvason in 994. A period of civil war ended in the 13th century when Norway expanded its control overseas to parts of the British Isles, Iceland, and Greenland. Norwegian territorial power peaked in 1265, but competition from the Hanseatic League and the spread of the Black Death weakened the country. In 1380, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by the Third Reich. In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a founding member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.


Norway is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, with King Harald V as its head of state. It is a unitary state with administrative subdivisions on two levels known as counties (fylke) and municipalities (kommuner). The Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Although having rejected European Union membership in two referenda, Norway maintains close ties with the union and its member countries, as well as with the United States. Norway remains one of the biggest financial contributors to the United Nations, and participates with UN forces in international missions, notably in Afghanistan, Kosovo, Sudan and Libya. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the Council of Europe, and the Nordic Council; a member of the European Economic Area, the WTO, and the OECD; and is also a part of Schengen Area.


Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, minerals, lumber, seafood, fresh water, and hydropower. The country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world. On a per-capita basis, it is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside the Middle East, and the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. The country maintains a Nordic welfare model with universal health care, subsidized higher education, and a comprehensive social security system. From 2001 to 2006, and then again from 2009 through 2011, Norway has had the highest human development index ranking in the world. In 2011, Norway also ranked the highest on the Democracy Index.


List of Norwegian Monarchs - 1450-Present

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death References
DS Christian I
2 August 1450-
21 May 1481
Christian-I-DenmarkNorwaySweden.JPG February 1426

eldest son of Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg and Helvig of Schauenburg
Dorothea of Brandenburg
28 October 1449
Church of Our Lady

five children
21 May 1481
Copenhagen Castle

aged 55
 R  Interregnum (1481-1483)
Jon Svaleson Smør as regent
DS John
20 July 1483-
20 February 1513
1455 Johann.JPG 2 February 1455
Aalborghus Castle

third son of Christian I and Dorothea of Brandenburg
Christina of Saxony
6 September 1478

five children
20 February 1513
Aalborghus Castle

aged 58
DS Christian II
22 July
ChristianIIb.jpg 1 July 1481
Nyborg Castle

second son of John and Christina of Saxony
Isabella of Austria
12 August 1515

six children
25 January 1559
Kalundborg Castle

aged 77
D Frederick I
Frederik1dk.jpg 7 October 1471
Haderslevhus Castle

fourth son of Christian I and Dorothea of Brandenburg
(1) Anna of Brandenburg
10 April 1502

two children
(2) Sophie of Pomerania
9 October 1518
Kiel Castle

six children
10 April 1533
Gottorp Castle

aged 61
 R  Interregnum (1533-1537)
Olav Engelbrektsson as regent
D Christian III
1 January 1559
Christian III of Denmark.jpg 12 August 1503
Gottorp Castle

only son of Frederick I and Anna of Brandenburg
Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
29 October 1525
Lauenburg Castle

five children
1 January 1559
Koldinghus Castle

aged 55
D Frederick II
1581 Lorck Frederik 2.(crop).jpg 1 July 1534
Haderslevhus Castle

eldest son of Christian III and Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
20 July 1572

eight children
4 April 1588
Antvorskov Castle

aged 53
D Christian IV
4 April 1588-
28 February 1648
Kristian IV av Danmark, malning av Pieter Isaacsz 1611-1616.jpg 12 April 1577
Frederiksborg Palace

eldest son of Frederick II and Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
(1) Anne Catherine of Brandenburg
27 November 1597
Haderslevhus Castle

seven children
(2) Kirsten Munk
31 December 1615

twelve children
28 February 1648
Rosenborg Castle

aged 70
D Frederick III
1 May 1648-
9 February 1670
Frederik 3 by window.jpg 18 March 1609
Haderslevhus Castle

third son of Christian IV and Anne Catherine of Brandenburg
Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1 October 1643
Glücksburg Castle

eight children
9 February 1670
Copenhagen Castle

aged 60
D Christian V
9 February 1670-
25 August 1699
Christian V of Denmark.jpg 15 April 1646
Duborg Castle
eldest son of Frederick III and Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel
25 June 1667
Nykøbing Castle
eight children
25 August 1699
Copenhagen Castle

aged 53
D Frederick IV
25 August 1699-
12 October 1730
1671 Frederik.jpg 11 October 1671
Copenhagen Castle

eldest son of Christian V and Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel
(1) Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
5 December 1695

five children
(2) Elisabeth Helene von Vieregg
6 September 1703
one son
(3) Anne Sophie Reventlow
4 April 1721

three children
12 October 1730
Odense Palace

aged 59
D Christian VI
12 October 1730-
6 August 1746
Christian 6.jpg 30 November 1699
Copenhagen Castle

second son of Frederick IV and Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
7 August 1721
Pretzsch Castle

three children
6 August 1746
Hirschholm Palace

aged 46
D Frederick V
6 August 1746-
14 January 1766
Pilo Frederik V Denmark.JPG 31 March 1723
Copenhagen Castle

only son of Christian VI and Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
(1) Louise of Great Britain
11 December 1743

five children
(2) Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
8 July 1752
Frederiksborg Palace

one son
14 January 1766
Christiansborg Palace

aged 42
D Christian VII
14 January 1766-
13 March 1808
Christian 7 of Denmark.jpg 29 January 1749
Christiansborg Palace

second son of Frederick V and Louise of Great Britain
Caroline Matilda of Wales
8 November 1766
Christiansborg Palace

two children
13 March 1808

aged 59
D Frederick VI
13 March 1808-
7 February 1814
Fiedrichvidenmark.jpg 28 January 1768
Christiansborg Palace

only son of Christian VII and Caroline Matilda of Wales
Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel
31 July 1790
Gottorp Castle

eight children
3 December 1839
Amalienborg Palace

aged 70
I Christian Frederick
17 May 1814-
14 August 1814
Christian VIII af Wilhelm Marstrand.jpg 18 September 1786
Christiansborg Palace

eldest son of Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Denmark and Norway and Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
(1) Charlotte Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
21 June 1806
Ludwigslust Castle

two sons
(2) Caroline Amalie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg
22 May 1815
Augustenborg Palace

no issues
20 January 1848
Amalienborg Palace

aged 61

House of Oldenburg - Line of Holstein-Gottorp

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death References
S Charles II
4 November 1814-
5 February 1818
Charles XIII of Sweden.jpg 7 October 1748
Stockholm Palace

second son of Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia
Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp
7 July 1774
Stockholm Cathedral

two children
5 February 1818
Stockholm Palace

aged 69

House of Bernadotte

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death References
S Charles III John
5 February 1818-
8 March 1844
Marechal-Bernadotte.jpg 26 January 1763

son of Jean Henri Bernadotte and Jeanne de Saint Vincent
Désirée Clary
17 August 1798

one son
8 March 1844
Stockholm Palace

aged 81
S Oscar I
8 March 1844-
8 July 1859
Oscar I porträtterad 1836 av Fredric Westin.jpg 4 July 1799

only son of Charles III John and Désirée Clary
Josephine of Leuchtenberg
19 June 1823
Stockholm Cathedral

five children
8 July 1859
Stockholm Palace

aged 60
S Charles IV
8 July 1859-
18 September 1872
Konung Carl XV, Svenskt porträttgalleri.jpg 3 May 1826
Stockholm Palace

eldest son of Oscar I and Josephine of Leuchtenberg
Louise of the Netherlands
19 June 1850
Stockholm Cathedral

two children
18 September 1872

aged 46
S Oscar II
18 September 1872-
26 October 1905
600 Norwegian Lion King Oscar II.jpg 21 January 1829
Stockholm Palace

third son of Oscar I and Josephine of Leuchtenberg
Sophia of Nassau
6 June 1857
Biebrich Palace

four children
8 December 1907
Stockholm Palace

aged 78

House of Oldenburg - Line of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death References
I Haakon VII
18 November 1905-
21 September 1957
Haakon VII FSA.jpg 3 August 1872
Charlottenlund Palace

second son of Frederick VIII of Denmark and Louise of Sweden
Maud of Wales
22 July 1896
Buckingham Palace

one son
21 September 1957
Royal Palace

aged 85
I Olav V
The People's King

21 September 1957-
17 January 1991
Olav V of Norway.jpg 2 July 1903
Sandringham House

only son of Haakon VII and Maud of Wales
Märtha of Sweden
21 March 1929
Oslo Cathedral

three children
17 January 1991
Royal Lodge Kongsseteren

aged 87
I Harald V
17 January 1991-
Harald V Norway-Agencia Brasil.jpg 21 February 1937

only son of Olav V and Märtha of Sweden
Sonja Haraldsen
29 August 1968
Oslo Cathedral

two children
Wappen Deutsches Reich - Grossherzogtum Oldenburg.png

House of Oldenburg

The House of Oldenburg is a North German dynasty and one of Europe's most influential Royal Houses with branches that rule or have ruled in Denmark, Russia, Greece, Norway, Schleswig, Holstein, Oldenburg and Sweden. The current Queen of Denmark, the King of Norway and the ex-King of Greece as well as consorts of Spain, Greece and the United Kingdom belong to this House. It rose to prominence when Count Christian I of Oldenburg was elected King of Denmark in 1448, and of Norway in 1450. The house has occupied the Danish throne ever since. Marriages of medieval counts of Oldenburg had paved the way for their heirs to become kings of various Scandinavian kingdoms. Through marriage with a descendant of King Valdemar I of Sweden and of King Eric IV of Denmark, a claim to Sweden and Denmark was staked, since 1350.


At that time, its competitors were the successors of Margaret I of Denmark. In the 15th century, the Oldenburg heir of that claim married Hedwig of Schauenburg, a descendant of Euphemia of Sweden and Norway and also a descendant of Eric V of Denmark. Since descendants better situated in genealogical charts died out, their son Christian (the abovementioned) became the king of all three kingdoms of the whole Kalmar Union. The House of Mecklenburg was its chief competitor regarding the Northern thrones, and other aspirants included the Duke of Lauenburg. Different Oldenburgine branches have reigned in several countries. The House of Oldenburg was briefly poised to claim the thrones of England and Scotland through the marriage of the Stuart Princess Anne (later Queen) to Prince George of Denmark and Norway; however, following the early death of their only heir, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, the line of succession passed to the House of Hanover.


The Family Titles and Styles
The members of this family bear the title Prince or Princess of Norway, together with the formal appellation of His or Her Royal Highness.
The Genealogy of the Royal House

Carl, Pr of Denmark (see Denmark), was b.Charlottenlund 3 Aug 1872; he was elected King of Norway 18 Nov 1905 and assumed the throne as King HAAKON VII; he d.Oslo 21 Sep 1957; he m.Buckingham Palace 22 Jul 1896 Maud Pss of Great Britain and Ireland, etc (Marlborough House 26 Nov 1869-London 20 Nov 1938)
1a) OLAV V, King of Norway [born Alexander Edward Christian Frederik Pr of Denmark] (Appleton House, Sandringham, 2 Jul 1903-Kongsseteren, Oslo 17 Jan 1991); m.Oslo 21 Mar 1929 Märtha Pss of Sweden (Stockholm 28 Mar 1901-Oslo 5 Apr 1954)
1b) Ragnhild Alexandra [currently bears the title Pss Ragnhild, Mrs. Lorentzen (Highness)] (b.Oslo 9 Jun 1930); m.Asker 15 May 1953 Erling Sven Lorentzen (b.Oslo 28 Jan 1923)
2b) Astrid Maud Ingeborg [currently bears the title Pss Astrid, Mrs. Ferner (Highness)] (b.Oslo 12 Feb 1932); m.Asker 12 Jan 1961 Johan Martin Ferner (b.Oslo 22 Jul 1927)
3b) HARALD, King of Norway (b.Skaugum 21 Feb 1937); m.Oslo 29 Aug 1968 Sonja Haraldsen (b.Oslo 4 Jul 1937)
1c) Märtha Louise (b.Oslo 22 Sep 1971); m.Trondheim 24 May 2002 Ari Mikael Behn (b.Århus 30 Sep 1972)
1d) Maud Angelica Behn (b.Oslo 29 Apr 2003)
2d) Leah Isadora Behn (b.Bloksbjerg, Fredrikstad 8 Apr 2005)
3d) Emma Tallulah Behn (b.Lommedalen 29 Sep 2008)
2c) Haakon Magnus, Crown Prince of Norway (b.Oslo 20 Jul 1973); m.Oslo 25 Aug 2001 Mette-Marit Tjessem Høiby (b.Kristiansand 19 Aug 1973)
1d) Ingrid Alexandra (b.Oslo 21 Jan 2004)
2d) Sverre Magnus (b.Oslo 3 Dec 2005)

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