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Empire of Russia
Rossiyskaya Imperiya
The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская Империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the short-lived Russian Republic, which was succeeded by the Soviet Union. It was one of the largest empires in world history, surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires: at one point in 1866, it stretched from eastern Europe across Asia and into North America.

At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea on the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean and into North America on the east. With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third largest population of the world at the time, after Qing China and the British Empire. Like all empires, it represented a large disparity in economic, ethnic and religious positions. Its government, ruled by the Emperor, was the last absolute monarchy in Europe at the time of its demise.


Though the Empire was only officially proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad (1721), some historians would argue that it was truly born either when Ivan III conquered Novgorod or when Ivan IV conquered Kazan. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom (Царство) which was used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547 was already a contemporary Russian word for empire while Peter the Great just replaced it with a Latinized synonym. Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian settlement of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the incorporation of Left-bank Ukraine and the pacification of the Siberian tribes.


Rulers of the Imperial House of Romanov

The House of Romanov was the second and last imperial dynasty to rule over Russia, reigning from 1613 until the February Revolution abolished the crown in 1917. The later history of the Imperial House is sometimes referred to informally as the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov. The Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, who was himself a member of a cadet branch of the Oldenburgs, married into the Romanov family early in the 18th century; all Romanov Tsars from the middle of that century to the revolution of 1917 were descended from that marriage. Though officially known as the House of Romanov, these descendants of the Romanov and Oldenburg Houses are sometimes referred to as Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov.

Monarch Coat of arms Portrait Birth Marriage Tsar from Tsar until Death
Michael I     12 July 1596
, Russia
Maria Vladimirovna Dolgorukova
one stillborn child

Eudoxia Lukyanovna Streshneva

5 February 1626
ten children
26 July 1613 14 July 1645 12 July 1645, Moscow, Russia
Alexis I the Quietest Imperial Coat of arms of Russia (17th century).svg Alexis I of Russia.jpg 9 May 1629
, Russia
Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya
17 January 1648
13 children

Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina

1 February 1671
3 children
14 July 1645 29 January 1676 29 January 1676, Moscow, Russia
Feodor III Imperial Coat of arms of Russia (17th century).svg Feodor III of Russia.jpg 9 June 1661
, Russia
Agaphia Simeonovna Grushevskaya
28 July 1680
one son

Marfa Matveievna Apraksina

24 February 1682
no children
29 January 1676 7 May 1682 7 May 1682, Moscow, Russia
Sophia (regent) Imperial Coat of arms of Russia (17th century).svg Sophia Alekseyevna hermitage.jpg 17 September 1657
, Russia
unmarried, no children 17 May 1682 27 August 1689 3 July 1704, Moscow, Russia
Ivan V
jointly with Peter I
Imperial Coat of arms of Russia (17th century).svg Ivan V kremlin.jpg 6 September 1666
, Russia
Praskovia Feodorovna Saltykova
5 daughters
2 June 1682 8 February 1696 8 February 1696, Moscow, Russia
Peter I the Great
jointly with Ivan V 1682-1696
Imperial Coat of arms of Russia (17th century).svg Peter de Grote 9 June 1672
, Tsardom of Russia
Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina
3 children

Marta Helena Skowrońska

9 children
2 June 1682 2 November 1721 8 February 1725, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire

Emperors of Russia

(Also Grand Princes of Finland from 1809 until 1917; and Kings of Poland from 1815 until 1916)

Monarch Coat of arms Portrait Birth Marriage Emperor from Emperor until Death
Peter I the Great Peterthegreatcoa.gif Peter de Grote 9 June 1672
, Tsardom of Russia
Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina
3 children

Marta Helena Skowrońska

9 children
2 November 1721 8 February 1725 8 February 1725, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Catherine I Catherinecoa.gif Empress Catherine I -c.1724 -3.jpg 15 April 1684
Ringen (Rõngu)
, Duchy of Livonia, Sweden
Peter I of Russia
9 children
8 February 1725 17 May 1727 17 May 1727, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Peter II Russian coa 1730.gif Pyotralexeevich.jpg 23 October 1715
St. Petersburg
, Tsardom of Russia
unmarried 18 May 1727 30 January 1730 30 January 1730, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Anna Russian coa 1730.gif Louis Caravaque, Portrait of Empress Anna Ioannovna (1730).jpg 7 February 1693
, Tsardom of Russia
Frederick Wilhelm, Duke of Courland
November 1710
no children
13 February 1730 28 October 1740 28 October 1740, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Ivan VI  Russian coa 1730.gif Ivan VI of Russia.jpg 23 August 1740
St. Petersburg
, Russian Empire
unmarried 28 October 1740 6 December 1741 16 July 1764 (murdered)
, Russian Empire
Elizabeth Russian coa 1730.gif Portrait of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna by Ivan Vishnyakov.jpg 29 December 1709
, Tsardom of Russia
Alexey Razumovsky
no children
6 December 1741 5 January 1762 5 January 1762, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Peter III Russian coa 1730.gif Antronov Petr 3.jpg 21 February 1728
, Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst
16 August 1745
one son
9 July 1762 17 July 1762 17 July 1762 (murdered), Ropsha, Russian Empire
Catherine II the Great Russian coa 1730.gif Catherinethegreatroslin.jpg 2 May 1729
, Kingdom of Prussia
Peter III of Russia
16 August 1745
one son
9 July 1762 6 November 1796 6 November 1796, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Paul I Paulicoa1796.gif Borovikovskiy PtPavla1GRM.jpg 1 October 1754
St. Petersburg
, Russian Empire
Princess Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
29 September 1773
one stillborn daughter

Princess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg

26 September 1776
ten children
17 November 1796 11 March 1801 11 March 1801 (assassinated), St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Alexander I the Blessed Russian coa 1830.gif Youngemperoralexander.jpg 23 December 1777
St. Petersburg
, Russian Empire
Princess Louise of Baden
28 September 1793
2 daughters
24 March 1801 1 December 1825 1 December 1825, Taganrog, Russian Empire
Constantine I  Russian coa 1830.gif Konstantinpaulowrussland(crop).jpg 27 April 1779
Tsarskoye Selo
, Russian Empire
Princess Juliane of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
26 February

no children
1 December 1825 26 December 1825 27 June 1831
, Russian Empire
Nicholas I Russian coa 1830.gif Nicholasbotman(1).jpg 6 July 1796
, Russian Empire
Princess Charlotte of Prussia
13 July 1817
7 children
26 December 1825 2 March 1855 2 March 1855, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Alexander II the Liberator Lesser Coat of Arms of Russian Empire.svg Alexanderbymakovsky.jpg 29 April 1818
, Russian Empire
Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine
16 April 1841
8 children
2 March 1855 13 March 1881 13 March 1881 (assassinated), St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Alexander III the Peace-Maker Lesser Coat of Arms of Russian Empire.svg Dmitriev 001(crop).jpg 10 March 1845
St. Petersburg
, Russian Empire
Princess Dagmar of Denmark
9 November 1866
6 children
13 March 1881 1 November 1894 1 November 1894
, Russian Empire
Saint Nicholas II Lesser Coat of Arms of Russian Empire.svg Tsar Nikolai II (2).jpg 6 May 1868
Tsarskoye Selo
, Russian Empire
Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine
26 November 1894
5 children
1 November 1894 15 March 1917 17 July 1918 (executed)
, Russian SFSR
Michael II  Lesser Coat of Arms of Russian Empire.svg Mikhail Aleksandrovich by Repin.JPG 22 November 1878
Tsarskoye Selo
, Russian Empire
Natalia Brassova
15 October 1911
one son (born before his parents' marriage)
15 March 1917 16 March 1917 12 June 1918 (murdered)
, Russian SFSR


The Family Titles and Styles 
The members of this family bear the title Grand Duke or Grand Duchess of Russia together with the formal appellation of His or Her Imperial Highness,  if children or grandchildren of an emperor, Prince or Princess of Russia together with the formal appellation of His or Her Highness, if great-grandchildren (or senior agnate of a great-grandson) of an emperor, Prince or Princess of Russia together with the formal appellation of His or Her Serene Highness, if more distantly descended from an emperor. 
The Genealogy of the Imperial House
MICHAEL I, Mikhail I Fyodorovich (Russian: Михаил Фёдорович) Mikhail Fedorovich (12 July 1596 - 12 July 1645) was the first Russian Tsar of the house of Romanov. He was the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov (later known as Patriarch Filaret) and Xenia (later known as "the great nun" Martha). His reign marked the end of the Time of Troubles. 
ALEXEI, Tsar and Autocrat of all the Russias 23 Jul 1645 (Moscow 20 Mar 1629-Moscow 30 Jan 1678); m.1st Moscow 26 Jan 1648 Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskya (1625-Moscow 3 Mar 1699); m.2d Moscow 1 Feb 1671 Natalia Kirilovna Naryshkina (1 Sep 1651-Moscow 4 Feb 1694)

1a) Dimitri (22 Aug 1648-Oct 1649)

2a) Evdokia (17 Feb 1650-10 Mar 1712)

3a) Marfa (4 Sep 1652-18 Jul 1707)

4a) Alexei (15 Feb 1654-27 Jan 1670)

5a) Anna (Jan 1655-May 1659)
6a) Sophia, Regent of Russia 1682-1689 (Moscow 27 Sep 1657-Novodevichiy Convent, Moscow 14 Jul 1704)

7a) Ekaterina (Moscow Nov 1658-May 1718)

8a) Maria (Moscow 18/28 Jan 1660-St.Petersburg 9/20 Mar 1723)
9a) FEODOR III, Tsar and Autocrat of all the Russias (Moscow 9 Jun 1661-Moscow 7 May 1682); m.1st Moscow 28 Jul 1680 Agafia Semenovna Gruchetzkaya (d.Moscow 24 Jul 1681); m.2d Moscow 24 Feb 1682 Marfa Matveievna Apraxina (Moscow 1664-St.Petersburg 11 Jan 1716)

1b) Ilya (Moscow 21 Jul 1681-Moscow 24 Jul 1681)

10a) Feodosia (7 Jun 1662-14/25 Dec 1713)

11a) Semen, b.Apr 1665; most sources state that he died young (29 Jun 1669), but Europäische Stammtafeln (Schwennicke) Band II, Tafel 151 shows his death date as 14 Dec 1713, which cannot be correct
12a) IVAN V, Tsar and Autocrat of all the Russias, jointly with his brother Peter I 1682 (Moscow 6 Sep 1666-Moscow 8 Feb 1696); m.Moscow 19 Jan 1684 Praskovia Feodorovna Saltykova (21 Oct 1664-24 Oct 1723)

1b) Maria (Moscow 31 Mar 1689-23 Feb 1692)

2b) Feodosia (Moscow 14 Jun 1690-Moscow 22 May 1691)
3b) Catherine (Ekaterina) (Moscow 29 Oct 1691-St.Petersburg 25 Jun 1733); m.Danzig 19 Apr 1716 Karl Leopold, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Grabow 26 Nov 1678-Dömitz 28 Nov 1747)

1c) Elisabeth Katharina Christina, known as Anna Karlovna/Anna Leopoldovna, Regent of Russia for her son 1740-1741 (Rostock 18 Dec 1718-Kholmoghori 19 Mar 1746); m.St.Petersburg 14 Jul 1739 Anton Ulrich, Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel 28 Aug 1714-Kholmoghori 4 May 1774)
1d) IVAN VI, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias 28 Oct 1740-7 Dec 1741 (St.Petersburg 23 Aug 1740-Schlüsselburg 16 Jul 1764)

2d) Catherine (St.Petersburg 26 Jul 1741-Horsens, Denmark 7 Apr 1807)

3d) Elisabeth (Elisaveta) (Kholmoghori 16 Sep 1743-Horsens 20 Oct 1782)

4d) Peter (Kholmoghori 30 Mar 1745-Horsens 30 Jan 1798)

5d) Alexei (Kholmoghori 10 Mar 1746-Horsens 23 Oct 1787)
4b) ANNA, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias 30 Jan 1730, Duchess of Courland 1711-1730 (Moscow 28 Jan/7 Feb 1693-Winter Palace 28 Oct 1740); m.St.Petersburg 11 Nov 1710 Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Courland (19 Jul 1692-Kippinghof 21 Jan 1711)

5b) Praskovia (Moscow 14 Oct 1694-19 Oct 1731); m.after 1723 Ivan Dimitriev-Mamonov (1681-4 Jun 1730)
 peter-the-great-of-russia.jpg Catherine_I_of_Russia.jpg
13a) PETER I, Tsar and Autocrat of all the Russias, jointly with his brother Ivan 7 May 1682 until Ivan's death, then sole Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias (Moscow 9 Jun 1672-St.Petersburg 8 Feb 1725); m.1st Moscow 6 Feb 1689 (div 1698) Evdokia Ilarionovna Lopukhina (10 Jul 1670-Moscow 7 Sep 1731); m.2d, allegedly, 8 Nov 1707, and publicly in St.Petersburg 19 Feb 1712 Martha Samuilovna Skavronskaya, who took the name Catherine on her Orthodox baptism and who succeeded him as Empress CATHERINE I on his death (Rengen, Estonia 5/15 Apr 1685-St.Petersburg 17 May 1727)
1b) Alexei (Moscow 28 Feb 1690-k.at St.Petersburg 7 Jul 1718); m.Torgau, Saxony 25 Oct 1711 Charlotte, Dss of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Braunschweig 29 Aug 1694-St.Petersburg 2 Nov 1715)

1c) Natalia (St.Petersburg 3 Aug 1714-Moscow 3 Dec 1728)
2c) PETER II, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russia 17 May 1727 (St.Petersburg 23 Oct 1715-Moscow 30 Jan 1730)

2b) Alexander (Moscow 23 Oct 1691-Moscow 24 May 1692)

3b) Paul, b.and d.1693

4b) Paul, b.1704, d.by 1707

5b) Peter, b.Sep 1705, d.by 1707
6b) Anna (Moscow 7 Feb 1708-Kiel 15 May 1728); m.St.Petersburg 1 Jun 1725 Karl Friedrich, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (30 Apr 1700-18 Jun 1739)
Peter_III_of_Russia.JPG Catherine_II-russia.jpg
1c) Karl Peter Ulrich, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp; succeeded as PETER III, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias 5 Jan 1762, until he was forced to abdicate by his wife 5 Jul 1762; b.Kiel 21 Feb 1728, murdered at Ropsha 17 Jul 1762; m.St.Petersburg 1 Sep 1745 Sophie Auguste Friederike Pss von Anhalt-Zerbst, who succeeded as CATHERINE II, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias 9 Jul 1762 (Stettin 2 May 1729-St.Petersburg 17 Nov 1796)
1d) PAUL, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias (Summer Palace 1 Oct 1754-murdered at Summer Palace 24 Mar 1801); m.1st St.Petersburg 10 Oct 1773 Wilhelmine (who took the name Natalia Alexeivna), Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt (Prenzlau 25 Jun 1755-St.Petersburg 26 Apr 1776); m.2d St.Petersburg 7 Oct 1776 Sophie (who took the name Maria Feodorovna), Dss of Württemberg (Stettin 25 Oct 1759-St.Petersburg  5 Nov 1828)
1e) ALEXANDER I, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias (St.Petersburg 23 Dec 1777-Taganrog 1 Dec 1825); m.St.Petersburg 9 Oct 1793 Luise Pss of Baden, who took the name Elisabeth Alexeievna (Karlsruhe 24 Jan 1779-Bjelev 16 May 1826)

1f) Maria (St.Petersburg 29 May 1799-St.Petersburg 8 Jul 1800)

2f) Elisabeth (St.Petersburg 15 Nov 1806-St.Petersburg 12 May 1808)
2e) CONSTANTINE I, renounced his succession rights 26 Jan 1822, which renunciation became official 28 Aug 1823 (Tsarskoie-Selo 8 May 1779-Vitebsk 27 Jun 1831); m.1st St.Petersburg 26 Feb 1796 (div 1820) Juliane Pss of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, who took the name Anna Feodorovna on her Orthodox baptism (Coburg 23 Sep 1781-Elfenau 15 Aug 1860); m.2d Warsaw 24 May 1820 Css Joanna Grudzinscy, cr Pss Lowicka (Serene Highness) 1820 (d.Tsarskoie-Selo 29 Nov 1831; NOTE: l'Allemagne Dynastique does not show a birth date for Pss Lowicka, but shows that sources give four different possibilities: Warsaw 21 Sep 1799, Poznan 29 Sep 1799, 29 Nov 1791 and 29 Sep 1795)
3e) Alexandra (St.Petersburg 9 Aug 1783-Vienna 16 Mar 1801); m.St.Petersburg 30 Oct 1799 Joseph, Archduke of Austria (Florence 9 Mar 1776-Ofen 13 Jan 1847)
4e) Elena (St.Petersburg 24 Dec 1784-Ludwigslust 24 Sep 1803); m.Gatchina 23 Oct 1799 Friedrich Ludwig, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Ludwigslust 13 Jun 1778-Ludwigslust 29 Nov 1819)
5e) Maria (St.Petersburg 16 Feb 1786-Belvedere, nr Weimar 23 Jun 1859); m.St.Petersburg 3 Aug 1804 Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar (Weimar 2 Feb 1783-Belvedere 8 Jul 1853)
6e) Catherine (St.Petersburg 21 May 1788-Stuttgart 9 Jan 1819); m.1st Peterhof 3 Aug 1809 Georg, Duke of Oldenburg (9 May 1784-Twer 27 Dec 1812); m.2d St.Petersburg 24 Jan 1816 King Wilhelm I of Württemberg (Lüben 27 Sep 1781-Schloß Rosenstein 25 Jun 1864)
7e) Olga (St.Petersburg 22 Jul 1792-St.Petersburg 26 Jan 1795)
8e) Anna (St.Petersburg 18 Jan 1795-The Hague 1 Mar 1865); m.St.Petersburg 21 Feb 1816 King Willem II of the Netherlands (The Hague 6 Dec 1792-Tilburg 17 Mar 1849)
9e) NICHOLAS I, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias (Tsarskoie Selo 6 Jul 1796-St.Petersburg 2 Mar 1855); m.St.Petersburg 13 Jul 1817 Charlotte (who took the name Alexandra Feodorovna) Pss of Prussia (Charlottenburg 13 Jul 1798-Tsarskoie Selo 1 Nov 1860)
1f) ALEXANDER II, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias (Moscow 29 Apr 1818-assassinated at St.Petersburg 13 Mar 1881); m.1st St.Petersburg 28 Apr 1841 Marie Pss of Hesse and the Rhine (Darmstadt 8 Aug 1824-St.Petersburg 3 Jun 1880); m.2d Tsarskoie Selo 18 Jul 1880 Pss Catherine Dolgoruky, cr Pss Yurievska (Serene Highness) 17 Dec 1880 (Moscow 14 Nov 1847-Nice 15 Feb 1922); his issue by this second marriage was legitimated after the marriage, though born before
1g) Alexandra (St.Petersburg 30 Aug 1842-St.Petersburg 10 Jul 1849)
2g) Nicholas, Tsarevich (Tsarskoie Selo 20 Sep 1843-Nice 24 Apr 1865)
3g) ALEXANDER III, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias (St.Petersburg 10 Mar 1845-Livadia 1 Nov 1894); m.St.Petersburg 9 Nov 1866 Dagmar (who took the name Maria Feodorovna) Pss of Denmark (Copenhagen 26 Nov 1847-Hvidore 13 Oct 1928)
1h) NICHOLAS II, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, abdicated for himself and his son 2/15 Mar 1917 (St.Petersburg 6 May 1868-murdered at Ekaterinburg 17 Jul 1918); m.St.Petersburg 26 Nov 1894 Alix (who took the name Alexandra Feodorovna) Pss of Hesse and the Rhine (Darmstadt 6 Jun 1872-murdered at Ekaterinburg 17 Jul 1918)
1i) Olga (Tsarskoie-Selo 15 Nov 1895-murdered Ekaterinburg 17 Jul 1918)
2i) Tatiana (Peterhof 10 Jun 1897-murdered Ekaterinburg 17 Jul 1918)
3i) Maria (Peterhof 26 Jun 1899-murdered Ekaterinburg 17 Jul 1918)
4i) Anastasia (Peterhof 18 Jun 1901-murdered Ekaterinburg 17 Jul 1918)
5i) Alexis, Tsarevich (Peterhof 12 Aug 1904-murdered Ekaterinburg 17 Jul 1918)
2h) Alexander (St.Petersburg 7 Jun 1869-St.Petersburg 2 May 1870)
3h) George (Tsarskoie-Selo 6 May 1871-Abbas-Touman, Caucasus 9 Aug 1899)
4h) Xenia (St.Petersburg 6 Apr 1875-Wilderness House, Hampton Court 20 Apr 1960); m.St.Petersburg 6 Aug 1894 Alexander, Grand Duke of Russia (13 Apr 1866-26 Feb 1933; below)
5h) MICHAEL II, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias briefly after his brother's abdication 2/15 Mar 1917; the next day he signed a manifesto declaring that he would not assume the position of Emperor until and unless a representative body should decide on the continuation of the monarchy (St.Petersburg 22 Nov 1878-executed near Perm 13 Jul 1918); m.(morganatically) Vienna 16/29 Oct 1912 Natalia Cheremetevskya, cr Pss Romanovskaya-Brassova (Serene Highness) 1928 (Moscow 27 Jun 1880-Paris 26 Feb 1952)
1i) Ct George Brassov (Moscow, or Udinka, nr Moscow 24 Jul 1910-k.in car wreck at Auxerre 22 Jul 1931)
6h) Olga (Peterhof 13 Jun 1882-Toronto 24 Nov 1960); m.1st Gatschina 9 Aug 1901 (div 1916) Peter, Duke of Oldenburg (St.Petersburg 21 Nov 1868-Biarritz 11 Mar 1924); m.2d Kiev 1 Nov 1916 Nikolai Kulikovsky (Evstratovka, Ukraine 11 Nov 1882-Cooksville, Ontario 11 Aug 1958)
4g) Wladimir (St.Petersburg 22 Apr 1847-St.Petersburg 17 Feb 1909); m.St.Petersburg 28 Aug 1874 Marie, Dss of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Ludwigslust 14 May 1854-Contrexéville 6 Sep 1920)

1h) Alexander (Tsarskoie-Selo 31 Aug 1875-St.Petersburg 16 Mar 1877)
2h) Kirill (Tsarskoie-Selo 30 Sep 1876-Neuilly 13 Oct 1938); m.Tegernsee 8 Oct 1905 Victoria Melita Pss of Great Britain and Ireland, Pss of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, etc (Malta 25 Nov 1876-Amorbach 2 Mar 1936)
1i) Marie (Coburg 2 Feb 1907-Madrid 25 Oct 1951); m.Coburg 24 Feb 1925 Karl Fst zu Leiningen (Strassburg 13 Feb 1898-Saransk, Russia 2 Aug 1946); note: though she and her sister were not grandchildren of an Emperor, they were generally accorded the title Grand Duchess on the grounds that their father was head of the house.
2i) Kira (Paris 9 May 1909-St.Briac-sur-Mer 8 Sep 1967); m.Doorn 4 May 1938 Louis Ferdinand Pr of Prussia (Marmorpalais 9 Nov 1907-Bremen 25 Sep 1994)
3i) Vladimir (Borga, Finland 30 Aug 1917-Miami 21 Apr 1992); m.Lausanne 13 Aug 1948 Pss Leonida Bagration-Moukhransky (Tiflis 23 Sep 1914-Madrid 23 May 2010); note: as heir to his father, Vladimir assumed and was generally accorded the title Grand Duke
1j) Maria (b.Madrid 23 Dec 1953); m.Madrid 22 Sep 1976 (div 1986) Franz Wilhelm Pr of Prussia (b.Grünberg 3 Sep 1943); note: as heir to her father, on the grounds that no other eligible members of the family survive, Maria was officially accorded by her father the Imperial title Grand Duchess of Russia, together with the formal appellation of Imperial Highness, Maria is the Present Head of the Imperial House.
1k) George, Grand Duke of Russia, Pr of Prussia (b.Madrid 13 Mar 1981); as only child and heir of his mother, George has been accorded the Imperial title Grand Duke of Russia together with the formal appellation of Imperial Highness, but does not use his Prussian Royal Title and Style.
3h) Boris (St.Petersburg 24 Nov 1877-Paris 9 Nov 1943); m.Genoa 12 Jul 1919 Zinaida Rachevskya (Dvinsk 3 Nov 1898-Paris 30 Jan 1963)
4h) Andrei (Tsarskoie-Selo 14 May 1879-Paris 30 Oct 1956); m.Cannes 30 Jan 1921 Marie-Mathilde Kchessinska, cr Pss Romanovskya-Krassinskya (Ligovo 31 Aug 1872-Paris 8 Dec 1971)
1i) Pr Vladimir Romanovsky-Krasinsky (St.Petersburg 30 Jun 1902-Paris 23 Apr 1974); Mathilde Kchessinska had been involved with the future Emperor Nicholas II, and then with Grand Duke Serge Mikhailovich, before settling with Andrei; it is said that Prince Vladimir was never sure whether Andrei or Serge where his biological father; however, Andrei recognized Vladimir as his son after the revolution.

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