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 Coat of arms of Luxembourg
Grand Duchy of Luxemburg
Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg 
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a landlocked country in western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. It has two principal regions: the Oesling in the North as part of the Ardennes massif, and the Gutland ("good country") in the south. Luxembourg has a population of over half a million people in an area of approximately 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi). A representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is ruled by a grand duke. It is now the world's only remaining sovereign grand duchy. The country has a highly developed economy, with the world's highest GDP (nominal) per capita according to the IMF. Its historic and strategic importance dates back to its founding as a Roman era fortress site and Frankish count's castle site in the Early Middle Ages. It was an important bastion along the Spanish Road when Spain was the principal European power influencing the whole western hemisphere and beyond in the 16th-17th centuries.

Luxembourg is a member of the European Union, NATO, OECD, the United Nations, and Benelux, reflecting the political consensus in favour of economic, political, and military integration. The city of Luxembourg, the largest and capital city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg culture is a mix of Romance Europe and Germanic Europe, borrowing customs from each of the distinct traditions. Luxembourg is a trilingual country; German, French and Luxembourgish are official languages. Although a secular state, Luxembourg is predominantly Roman Catholic.

 Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg
The Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg (House of Nassau-Weilburg, agnatically, a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon-Parma, itself a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon, in turn a cadet branch of the House of Capet) consists of the extended family of the sovereign Grand Duke. The medieval duchy of Luxembourg was elevated to a grand duchy in 1815; William I of the Netherlands ascended the grand ducal throne as its first holder. William, through his Prussian mother, was a descendant of the medieval heiress Anne, Duchess of Luxembourg, as was William's wife, his first cousin. The territories of the grand duchy, taken (including the ancestral castle of Luxembourg) from occupying French forces in the first stages of the fall of Napoleon, had been ceded to William by his first cousin King Frederick William III of Prussia, who was Anne's heir-general. In breach of the traditional line of succession of Luxembourg, the great powers of Europe agreed that the grand duchy would be inherited in the male line of the House of Nassau.
House of Nassau-Weilburg
The House of Nassau-Weilburg ruled a division of Nassau, which was a state in current Germany, a state that existed from 1344 to 1806. On July 17, 1806 the counties of Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Weilburg joined the Confederation of the Rhine. Under pressure from Napoleon both counties merged to become the Duchy of Nassau on August 30, 1806 under joint rule of Prince Frederick August of Nassau-Usingen and his younger cousin Prince Frederick William of Nassau-Weilburg. As Frederick August had no heirs he agreed that Frederick William should become sole ruler after his death. However Frederick William died from a fall on the stairs at Weilburg Castle on 9 January 1816 and it was his son William who became duke of a unified Nassau.

The sovereigns of this house afterwards governed the Duchy of Nassau until 1866, and since 1890 they have governed the nation of Luxembourg. The House of Nassau-Weilburg became extinct in the male line with the death of Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg in 1985. However, the name has been carried on in the bilineal line, with the official name of the reigning house of Luxembourg remaining Nassau-Weilburg. Since the death of the Grand Duchess, members of the reigning house are cognatically members of the House of Nassau-Weilburg and agnatically members of the House of Bourbon-Parma.

The List of the Grand Dukes of Luxembourg

The Grand Duke of Luxembourg is the head of state of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is the world's only sovereign extant Grand Duchy, a status to which Luxembourg was promoted in 1815 upon its unification with the Netherlands under the House of Orange-Nassau.

House of Orange-Nassau

Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Willem I in kroningsmantel.jpg William I
Willem Frederik
(Prince William VI of Orange)
24 August 1772 12 December 1843 15 March 1815
7 October 1840
Francis' third cousin
Anne 's direct descendant
WillemIINL3.jpg William II
Willem Frederik George Lodewijk
6 December 1792 17 March 1849 7 October 1840
17 March 1849
his son
Portrait of King Willem III of the Netherlands, Nicolaas Pieneman (1856).jpg William III
Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk
17 February 1817 23 November 1890 17 March 1849
23 November 1890
his son

 House of Nassau-Weilburg

Under the 1783 Nassau Family Pact, those territories of the Nassau family in the Holy Roman Empire at the time of the Pact (Luxembourg and Nassau) were bound by semi-Salic law, which allowed inheritance by females or through the female line only upon extinction of male members of the dynasty. When William III died leaving only his daughter Wilhelmina as an heir, the crown of the Netherlands, not being bound by the family pact, passed to Wilhelmina. However, the crown of Luxembourg passed to a male of another branch of the House of Nassau: Adolphe, the dispossessed Duke of Nassau and head of the branch of Nassau-Weilburg.

In 1905, Grand Duke Adolphe's younger half-brother, Prince Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau, died, having left a son Georg Nikolaus, Count von Merenberg who was, however, the product of a morganatic marriage, and therefore not legally a member of the House of Nassau. In 1907, Adolphe's only son, William IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, obtained passage of a law confirming the right of his eldest daughter, Marie-Adélaïde, to succeed to the throne in virtue of the absence of any remaining dynastic males of the House of Nassau, as originally stipulated in the Nassau Family Pact. She became the grand duchy's first reigning female monarch upon her father's death in 1912, and upon her own abdication in 1919, was succeeded by her younger sister Charlotte, who married Felix of Bourbon-Parma, a prince of the former Duchy of Parma. Charlotte's descendants have since reigned as the continued dynasty of Nassau, and also constitute a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon-Parma.

Image Name Date of birth Date of death Reign Relationship with predecessor
Adolfluxembourg1817-6.jpg Adolphe 24 July 1817 17 November 1905 23 November 1890
17 November 1905
his nephew
Guillaume IV of Luxembourg.png William IV 22 April 1852 25 February 1912 17 November 1905
25 February 1912
his son
Marie-Adélaïde.gif Marie-Adélaïde 14 June 1894 24 January 1924 25 February 1912
14 January 1919
his daughter
Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg.jpg Charlotte 23 January 1896 9 July 1985 14 January 1919
12 November 1964
her sister
(younger daughter of William IV)
Grand Duke Jean 29.09.2006.jpg Jean 5 January 1921 Living 12 November 1964
7 October 2000
her son
Henri of Luxembourg (2009).jpg Henri 16 April 1955 Living From 7 October 2000
his son
The Family Titles and Styles
Traditionally, the members of this family bear the titles Prince or Princess of Luxemburg, Bourbon-Parma and Nassau, together with the formal appellation of His or Her Royal Highness. The Arrêté Grand-Ducal of 21 Septembre 1995 etablished that the title of "Prince or Princesse de Luxembourg" is reserved for the children of the sovereign and the heir to the throne. It also stated that the descendants in male lineage of the sovereign should be styled as "Prince or Princesse de Nassau" with qualification of "Altesse Royale" and that the descendants of non-approved mariages should be styled as "Comte or Comtesse de Nassau". On 27 November 2004 Grand-duc Henri issued another Arrêté Grand-Ducal upgrading the issue of Prince Jean to "Prince or Princesse de Nassau" with the qualification of "Altesse Royale" and upgrading the wife and issue of Prince Robert to "Prince Prinesse de Nassau" with qualification of "Altesse Royale". In June 2009 another Arrêté Grand-Ducal was issued upgrading the issue of Prince Louis to "Prince or Princesse de Nassau" with the qualification of "Altesse Royale" and upgrading his wife Tessy "Altesse Royale Princesse de Luxembourg".
The Genealogy of the Grand Ducal House
Adolf Wilhelm August Karl Friedrich, Duke of Nassau 20 Aug 1839, lost his throne 20 Sep 1866 when Nassau was annexed to Prussia; succeeded King Willem III of the Netherlands, on his death without surviving male issue on 23 Nov 1890, as ADOLPHE, Grand Duke of Luxemburg, in accordance with the Nassau family compact; he was b.Biebrich 24 Jul 1817 and d.Schloß Hohenburg 17 Nov 1905; he m.1st St.Petersburg 31 Jan 1844 Elisabeth Mikhailovna, Grand Dss of Russia (Moscow 26 May 1826-Wiesbaden 28 Jan 1845); m.2d Dessau 23 Apr 1851 Adelheid Pss von Anhalt (Dessau 25 Dec 1833-Schloß Königstein 24 Nov 1916)

1a) GUILLAUME IV Alexandre, Grand Duke of Luxemburg, Duke of Nassau, etc (Biebrich 22 Apr 1852- Colmar-Berg 25 Feb 1912); m.Schloß Fischhorn 21 Jun 1893 Maria Anna Infanta of Portugal (Schloß Bronnbach 13 Jul 1861-New York 31 Jul 1942)

1b) MARIE ADÉLAÏDE Thérèse Hilda Wilhelmine, Grand Duchess of Luxemburg, abdicated 14 Jan 1919 (Colmar-Berg 14 Jun 1894-Schloß Hohenburg 24 Jan 1924)

2b) CHARLOTTE Aldegonde Élise Marie Wilhelmine, Grand Duchess of Luxemburg, abdicated 12 Nov 1964 (Schloß Berg 23 Jan 1896-Schloß Fischbach 9 Jul 1985); m.Luxemburg 6 Nov 1919 Felix Pr of Bourbon-Parma, cr Pr of Luxemburg 5 Nov 1919 (Schwarzau 28 Sep 1893-Fischbach 8 Apr 1970)

1c) JEAN Benoît Guillaume Robert Antoine Louis Marie Adolphe Marc d'Aviano, Grand Duke of Luxemburg 1964-2000 (b.Schloß Berg 5 Jan 1921); m.Luxemburg 9 Apr 1953 Josephine Charlotte Pss of Belgium (Brussels 11 Oct 1927-Fischbach 10 Jan 2005)

1d) Marie Astrid Liliane Charlotte Léopoldine Wilhelmine Ingeborg Antonia Élisabeth Anne Alberte (b.Schloß Betzdorf 17 Feb 1954); m.Luxemburg 6 Feb 1982 Carl Christian, Archduke of Austria (b.Beloeil 26 Aug 1954)

2d) HENRI Albert Gabriel Félix Marie Guillaume, Grand Duke of Luxemburg 2000 (b.Schloß Betzdorf 16 Apr 1955); m.Luxemburg 4 Feb 1981 Maria Teresa Mestre (b.Marianao, Cuba 22 Mar 1956)

1e) Guillaume Jean Joseph Marie, Hereditary Prince of Luxemburg (b.Luxemburg 11 Nov 1981)

2e) Félix Léopold Marie Guillaume (b.Luxemburg 3 Jun 1984)

3e) Louis Xavier Marie Guillaume (b.Luxemburg 3 Aug 1986); m.Gilsdorf 29 Sep 2006 Tessy Antony (b.Luxembourg-Ville 28 Oct 1985)

1f) Gabriel Michael Louis Ronny (b.Geneva 12 Mar 2006)

2f) Noah Guillaume (b.21 Sep 2007)

4e) Alexandra Joséphine Teresa Charlotte Marie Wilhelmine (b.Luxemburg 16 Feb 1991)

5e) Sébastian Henri Marie Guillaume (b.Luxemburg 16 Apr 1992)

3d) Jean Félix Marie Guillaume, renounced rights of succession 26 Sep1986 (b.Schloß Betzdorf 15 May 1957); m.1st (morganatically) Paris 27 May 1987 (div) Hélène Suzanna Vestur (b.St.Germain- en-Laye 31 May 1958); m.2nd (civ) Roermond 18 Mar 2009 Diane Marie Amélie Hermenegilde de Guerre (b.Düsseldorf 13 Jul 1962)

1e) Marie-Gabrielle Cécile Charlotte Sophie Pss de Nassau (b.Paris 8 Sep 1986)

2e) Constantine Jean Philippe Marie Albert Marc d'Aviano Pr de Nassau (b.Paris 22 Jul 1988)

3e) Wenceslas François Baudoin Léopold Juraj Marie Marc d'Aviano Pr de Nassau (b.Paris 17 Nov 1990)

4e) Carl-Johann Félix Julien Marc d'Aviano Pr de Nassau (b.Paris 15 Aug 1992)

4d) Margaretha Antonia Marie Félicité (b.Schloß Betzdorf 15 May 1957); m.Luxemburg 20 Mar 1982 Nikolaus Pr von und zu Liechtenstein (b.Zürich 24 Oct 1947)

5d) Guillaume Marie Louis Christian (b.Schloß Betzdorf 1 May 1963); m.Versailles 24 Sep 1994 Sibilla Weiller (b.Neuilly-sur-Seine 12 Jun 1968; see Torlonia)

1e) Paul-Louis Jean Marie Guillaume Pr de Nassau (b.Luxemburg 4 Mar 1998)

2e) Léopold Guillaume Marie Joseph Pr de Nassau (b.Luxemburg 2 May 2000)

3e) Charlotte Wilhelmine Maria da Gloria Pss de Nassau (b.Luxemburg 2 May 2000)

4e) Jean André Guillaume Marie Gabriel Marc d'Aviano Pr de Nassau (b.Luxemburg 13 Jul 2004)

2c) Elisabeth Hilda Zita Marie Anna Antonia Friederike Wilhelmine Luise (Schloß Berg 22 Dec 1922-22 Nov 2011); m.Luxemburg 9 May 1956 Franz Ferdinand, Duke von Hohenberg (Artstetten 13 Sep 1927-Ried in der Riedmark 16 Aug 1977)

3c) Marie Adelaide Louise Therese Wilhelmine (Schloß Berg 21 May 1924-Wolfsberg, Carinthia, Austria 28 Feb 2007); m.Luxemburg 10 Apr 1958 Karl Josef Gf Henckel von Donnersmarck (b.Romolkwitz 7 Nov 1928-Sliema, Malta 16 Apr 2008)

4c) Marie Gabrielle Adelgunde Wilhelmine Luise (b.Schloß Berg 2 Aug 1925); m.Schloß Colmar-Berg 6 Nov 1951 Knud Johan Ludvig Lehnsgraf Holstein til Ledreborg (Ledreborg 2 Oct 1919-25 Jun 2001)

5c) Charles Frédéric Louis Guillaume Marie (Schloß Berg 7 Aug 1927-Imbercati, Italy 26 Jul 1977); m.Guilford 1 Mar 1967 Joan Douglas Dillon (b.New York City 31 Jan 1935)

1d) Charlotte Phyllis Marie (b.New York City 15 Sep 1967); m.Mouchy 26 Jun 1993 (rel) Saint-Rémy-en-Provence 18 Sep 1993 Marc-Victor Cunningham (b.Harrogate 24 Sep 1965)

2d) Robert Louis François Marie (b.Fischbach 22 Aug 1968); m.Boston, Massachusetts 29 Jan 1994 Julie Elizabeth Houston Ongaro, cr Pss de Nassau 2004 (b.Louisville, KY 9 Jun 1966)

1e) Charlotte Justine Pss de Nassau (b.Boston 20 Mar 1995)

2e) Alexandre Thédore Charles Marie Pr de Nassau (b.Aix-en-Provence 18 Apr 1997)

3e) Frederik Henry Douglas Marie Pr de Nassau (b.Aix-en-Provence 18 Mar 2002)

6c) Alix Marie Anne Antonia Charlotte Gabrielle (b.Colmar-Berg 24 Aug 1929); m.Luxemburg 17 Aug 1950 Antoine Pr de Ligne (Brussels 8 Mar 1925-21 Aug 2005)

3b) Hilda Sophie Marie Adélaïde Wilhelmine (Colmar-Berg 15 Feb 1897-Colmar Berg 8 Sep 1979); m.Colmar-Berg 29 Oct 1930 Adolf Fst zu Schwarzenberg (Frauenberg 18 Aug 1890-Bordighera 27 Feb 1950)

4b) Antoinette Roberte Sophie Wilhelmine (Schloß Hohenburg 7 Oct 1899-Lenzerheide, Switzerland 31 Jul 1954); m.Schloß Hohenburg 7 Apr 1921 Rupprecht, Crown Pr of Bavaria (Munich 18 May 1869-Schloß Leutstetten 2 Aug 1955)

5b) Elisabeth Marie Wilhelmine (Luxemburg 7 Mar 1901-Schloß Hohenburg 2 Aug 1950); m.Schloß Hohenburg 14 Nov 1922 Ludwig Philipp Pr von Thurn u.Taxis (Regensburg 2 Feb 1901-Schloß Niederaichbach 22 Apr 1933)

6b) Sophie Caroline Marie Wilhelmine (Colmar-Berg 14 Feb 1902-Munich 24 May 1941); m.Schloß Hohenburg 12 Apr 1921 Ernst Heinrich Pr of Saxony (Dresden 9 Dec 1896-Coolamber, Ireland 14 Jun 1971)

2a) Friedrich Paul Wilhelm Pr von Nassau (Biebrich 23 Sep 1854-Biebrich 23 Oct 1855)

3a) Marie Bathildis Pss von Nassau (Biebrich 14 Nov 1857-Biebrich 28 Dec 1857)

4a) Franz Joseph Wilhelm Pr von Nassau (Biebrich 30 Jan 1859-Vienna 2 Apr 1875)

5a) Hilda Charlotte Wilhelmine (Biebrich 5 Nov 1864-Badenweiler 8 Feb 1952); m.Schloß Hohenburg 20 Sep 1885 Friedrich II, Grand Duke of Baden (Karlsruhe 9 Jul 1857-Badenweiler 9 Aug 1928) 

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