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  Coat of arms of Monaco
Principality of Monaco
Principatu de Múnegu
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (French: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque: Principatu de Múnegu; Italian: Principato di Monaco; Occitan: Principat de Mónegue), is a sovereign city state, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. Bordered by France on three sides, with one side bordering the Mediterranean Sea, its center is about 16 km (9.9 mi) from Italy, and is only 15 km (9.3 mi) north east of Nice, France. It has an area of 1.98 km2 (0.76 sq mi), and a population of 35,986, making Monaco the second smallest and the most densely populated country in the world. Monaco has a land border of only 4.4 km (2.7 mi), a coastline of 4.1 km (2.5 mi), and a width that varies between 1.7 km (1.1 mi) and 349 metres (382 yards). The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires district, which is 161 metres (528 feet) above sea level. Monaco's most populated Quartier is Monte Carlo, and the most populated Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. After a recent expansion of Port Hercules, Monaco's total area is 2.05 km2 (0.79 sq mi), with new plans to extend the district of Fontvieille, with land reclaimed from the Mediterranean Sea.

Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state. However, even though Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he still has immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297. The official language is French, but Monégasque, Italian, and English are widely spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was officially recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full UN voting member in 1993, after much political debate. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defence is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two small military units, totaling 255 officers and men, the Corps des Sapeurs-Pompiers de Monaco, and the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince.

Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad line to France, and the opening of the first casino, Monte Carlo Casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world-famous as a tourist and recreation center for the rich and famous. However, in more recent years Monaco has become a major banking center holding over €100 billion worth of funds, and has successfully sought to diversify its economy into the services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven. Monaco boasts the world's highest GDP nominal per capita at $172,676 and GDP PPP per capita at $186,175. Monaco also has the world's highest life expectancy at almost 90 years, and the lowest unemployment rate at 0%, with over 48,000 workers who commute from France and Italy each day. For the third year in a row, Monaco in 2011 had the world's most expensive real estate market, at $56,300 per square metre. According to the CIA World Factbook, Monaco has the world's lowest poverty rate, and the highest number of millionaires and billionaires per capita in the world

 The Family Titles and Styles

The members of this family bear the title Prince of Princess of Monaco, together with the formal appellation of His or Her Serene Highness.
The Genealogy of the Princely House
HONORÉ III Camille Léonor, Prince of Monaco (10 Nov 1720-21 Mar 1795); m.5 Jul 1757 (div 1770) Maria Caterina Brignole (7 Oct 1737-Wimbledon 18 Mar 1813)
1a) HONORÉ IV, Prince of Monaco 12 Mar 1795 (Monaco 17 May 1758-Paris 16 Feb 1819); m.Paris 15 Jul 1777 (div 1793) Louise d'Aumont, Duchesse de Mazarin et de la Meilleraye (Paris 22 Oct 1759-Paris 13 Dec 1826)

1b) HONORÉ V Gabriel, Prince of Monaco (Paris 13 May 1778-Paris 2 Oct 1841)

2b) Tancrede FLORESTAN Roger Louis, Prince of Monaco (Paris 10 Oct 1785-Paris 20 Jun 1856); m.Commercy 27 Nov 1816 Caroline Gibert (Paris 18 Jul 1793-Monaco 25 Nov 1879)

1c) CHARLES III Honoré, Prince of Monaco (Paris 8 Dec 1818-Château de Marchais 10 Sep 1889); m.Brussels 28 Sep 1846 Antoinette de Mérode (Brussels 28 Sep 1828-Monaco 10 Feb 1864)

1d) ALBERT Honoré Charles, Prince of Monaco (Paris 13 Nov 1848-Paris 26 Jun 1922); m.1st Château de Marchais 21 Sep 1869 (div 1880) Lady Mary Douglas-Hamilton (Hamilton Palace 11 Dec 1850-Budapest 14 May 1922); m.2d Paris 30 Oct 1889 (judicially separated 1902) Alice Heine, Dowager Dsse de Richelieu (New Orleans 10 Feb 1858-22 Dec 1925)

1e) LOUIS II Honoré Charles Antoine, Prince of Monaco (Baden-Baden 12 Jul 1870-Monaco 9 May 1949); m.Monaco 24 Jul 1946 Ghislaine Dommanget (Rheims 13 Oct 1900-Neuilly-sur-Seine 30 Apr 1991); he had an illegitimate daughter by Marie Juliette Louvet (Pierreval 9 May 1867-Paris 24 Sep 1930):

1f) Charlotte Louise Juliette, legitimated and granted title Dss de Valentinois 16 May 1919, renounced rights in favor of her son 30 May 1944 (Constantine, Algeria 30 Sep 1898-Paris 16 Nov 1977); m.Monaco 19 Mar 1920 (div 1933) Pierre Cte de Polignac, cr Duc de Valentinois, cr Pr of Monaco 18 Mar 1920 (Kerscamp 24 Oct 1895-Neuilly-sur-Seine 10 Nov 1964; see Polignac)

1g) Antoinette Louise Alberte Suzanne, Baronne de Massy (Paris 28 Dec 1920-17 Mar 2011); m.1st Genoa 23 Oct 1951 [?4 Dec 1951] (div 1954) Alexandre Noghès (Monaco 15 Jun 1916-17 Feb 1999); m.2d The Hague 2 Dec 1961 (div 1973) Jean-Charles Rey (Monaco 22 Oct 1914-Monaco 17 Sep 1994); m.3d Monaco 28 Jul 1983 John Gilpin (Southsea, Hants 10 Feb 1930-London 5 Sep 1983)

2g) RAINIER III Louis Henri Maxence Bertrand, Pr of Monaco (Monaco 31 May 1923-Monaco 6 Apr 2005); m.Monaco (civ) 18 Apr 1956 (rel) 19 Apr 1956 Grace Kelly (Philadelphia 12 Nov 1929-k.in car wreck at Monaco 14 Sep 1982)

1h) Caroline Louise Marguerite (b.Monaco 23 Jan 1957); m.1st Monaco (civ) 28 Jun 1978 (rel) 29 Jun 1978 (div 1980) Philippe Michel Francis Junot (b.Paris 19 Apr 1940); m.2d Monaco 29 Dec 1983 Stefano Andrea Casiraghi (Milan 8 Sep 1960-k.in boating accident nr Cap Ferrat 3 Oct 1990); m.3d Monaco 23 Jan 1999 (rel) Marienburg 27 Jan 1999 Ernst August Pr of Hannover (b.Hannover 26 Feb 1954)

1i) Andrea Albert Pierre Casiraghi (b.Princess Grace Clinic, Monte Carlo 8 Jun 1984)
2i) Charlotte Marie Pomeline Casiraghi (b.Princess Grace Clinic, Monte Carlo 3 Aug 1986)

3i) Pierre Rainier Stefano Casiraghi (b.Princess Grace Clinic, Monte Carlo 5 Sep 1987)

2h) ALBERT II Alexandre Louis Pierre, Prince of Monaco (b.Monaco 14 Mar 1958); m.Monaco 1 Jul 2011 (rel) 2 Jul 2011 Charlene Lynette Wittstock (b.Bulawayo, South Africa 25 Jan 1978)

3h) Stéphanie Marie Elisabeth (b.Monaco 1 Feb 1965); m.1st Monaco 1 Jul 1995 (div 1996) Daniel Ducruet (b.Beausoleil 27 Nov 1964); m.2d Vandoeuvres, Switzerland 12 Sep 2003 (div 2005) Adans Lopez Peres (b.1974)

1i) Louis Robert Paul Ducruet (b.Princess Grace Clinic, Monte Carlo 26 Nov 1992)

2i) Pauline Grace Maguy Ducruet (b.Princess Grace Clinic, Monte Carlo 4 May 1994)

3i) Camille Marie Kelly Grimaldi (or Gottlieb) (b.Princess Grace Clinic, Monte Carlo 15 Jul 1998)

2c) Florestine Gabrielle Antoinette (Fontenay 2 Oct 1833-Stuttgart 24 Apr 1897); m.Monaco 15 Feb 1863 Wilhelm, Duke von Urach (Stuttgart 6 Jul 1810-Schloß Lichtenstein 17 Jul 1869)

2a) Joseph Marie Jerôme Honoré (10 Sep 1763-28 Jun 1816); m.6 Apr 1782 Françoise Thérèse de Choiseul-Stainville (8 Dec 1766-guillotined at Paris 26 Jul 1794)

1b) Honorine Camille Athénais (22 Apr 1784-8 May 1879); m.20 Jul 1803 René Louis Victor Marquis de la Tour du Pin (d.4 Jun 1832)

2b) Athénais Euphrasie Louise Philippine (2 Jun 1786-11 Sep 1860); m.8 Aug 1804 Auguste Michel Felicité Le Tellier de Souvre Marquis de Louvois (d.3 Apr 1844)

3b) Delphine Aimée Charlotte (22 Jul 1788- )

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