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Empire of the French
Empire Français
 House of Bonaparte
 The First French Empire (French: Empire Français), also known as the Greater French Empire or Napoleonic Empire, was the empire of Napoleon I of France. It was the dominant power of much of continental Europe during the early 19th century. Napoleon became Emperor of the French (L'Empereur des Français, on 18 May 1804 and crowned Emperor on 2 December 1804, ending the period of the French Consulate, and won early military victories in the War of the Third Coalition against Austria, Prussia, Russia, Portugal, and allied nations, notably at the Battle of Austerlitz (1805) and the Battle of Friedland (1807). The Treaty of Tilsit in July 1807 ended two years of bloodshed on the European continent.

The subsequent series of wars known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars extended French influence over much of Western Europe and into Poland. At its height in 1812, the French Empire had 130 départements, ruled over 44 million subjects, maintained an extensive military presence in Germany, Italy, Spain, and the Duchy of Warsaw, and could count Prussia and Austria as nominal allies. Early French victories exported many ideological features of the French Revolution throughout Europe. Seigneurial dues and seigneurial justice were abolished, aristocratic privileges were eliminated in all places except Poland, and the introduction of the Napoleonic Code throughout the continent increased legal equality, established jury systems, and legalized divorce. Napoleon placed relatives on the thrones of several European countries and granted many noble titles, most of which were not recognized after the empire fell.

Historians have estimated the death toll from the Napoleonic Wars to be 6.5 million people, or 15% of the French Empire's subjects. In particular, French losses in the Peninsular War in Iberia severely weakened the Empire; after victory over the Austrian Empire in the War of the Fifth Coalition (1809) Napoleon deployed over 600,000 troops to attack Russia, in a catastrophic French invasion of that country in 1812. The War of the Sixth Coalition saw the expulsion of French forces from Germany in 1813. Napoleon abdicated in 11 April 1814. The Empire was briefly restored during the Hundred Days period in 1815 until Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. It was followed by the restored monarchy of the House of Bourbon.

Emperor of the French

The Emperor of the French (French: Empereur des Français) was the title used by the Bonaparte Dynasty starting when Napoleon Bonaparte was given the title Emperor on 18 May 1804 by the French Senate and was crowned emperor of the French on 02 December 1804 at the cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris, in Paris with the Crown of Napoleon. The title emphasized that the emperor ruled over "the French people", the nation, and not over France, the republic. The title was purposefully created to preserve the appearance of the French Republic and to show that after the French Revolution the feudal system was abandoned and a nation state was created, with equal citizens as the subjects of their emperor. (After 01 January 1809, the state was officially referred to as the French Empire.) The title of "Emperor of the French" was supposed to demonstrate that Napoleon's coronation was not a restoration of monarchy, but an introduction of a new political system: the Empire of the French (Empire des Français). Napoleon's reign lasted until 22 June 1815 when he was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, exiled and imprisoned on the island of Saint Helena, where he died on 05 May 1821. His reign was interrupted by the Bourbon Restoration of 1814 and his own exile to Elba, from where he escaped less than a year later to reclaim the throne, reigning as Emperor for another 94 days before his final defeat and exile.

Less than a year following the French coup of 1851 by Napoleon's Nephew Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, which ended in the successful dissolution of the French National Assembly, the Second French Republic was transformed into the Second French Empire, established by a referendum on 07 November 1852. President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, elected by the French people, officially became Napoleon III, Emperor of the French, from the symbolic and historic date of 02 December 1852. His reign persisted to the fourth of September, 1870, although he became captured at the Battle of Sedan during the Franco-Prussian War. He was then forced into exile through England until he died on 09 January 1873. Since the early death of his only son Louis Napoléon in 1879, the House of Bonaparte has had a number of claimants to the French throne. The current claimant is Jean Christophe, who became head of the house of Bonaparte on 03 May 1997.

Full titles of the Emperor of the French

The Emperors of the French had various titles and claims that reflected the geographic expanse and diversity of the lands ruled by the House of Bonaparte. Napoleon I : His Imperial and Royal Majesty Napoleon I, By the Grace of God and the Constitutions of the Republic, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine and the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt, Mediator of the Helvetic Confederation. Napoleon II : His Imperial Majesty Napoleon II, By the Grace of God and the Constitutions of the Republic, Emperor of the French. Napoleon III :His Imperial Majesty Napoleon III, By the Grace of God and the will of the Nation, Emperor of the French.

First French Empire (1804-1814)

Portrait Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Napoleon in His Study.jpg Napoleon I 18 May 1804 11 April 1814  • N/A

First French Empire (Hundred Days, 1815)

Portrait Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Napoleon in His Study.jpg Napoleon I 20 March 1815 22 June 1815  • Self

First French Empire (1815)

Portrait Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Napoleon II., Herzog von Reichstadt.jpg Napoleon II 22 June 1815 7 July 1815  • Son of Napoleon I

According to his father's will of 1815, Napoleon II was the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. However, the young child's reign was entirely fictional, as he was residing in Austria with his mother. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on 07 July.

Second French Empire (1852-1870)

Portrait Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Franz Xaver Winterhalter Napoleon III.jpg Napoleon III 2 December 1852 4 September 1870  
  • Nephew of Napoleon I
 • Cousin of Napoleon II

Pretender to France (1873-1879)

Portrait Name Pretender From Pretender Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Napoléon Eugène Bonaparte, sitting.jpg Louis Napoléon 9 January 1873 1 June 1879  
  • Great-Nephew of Napoleon I
  • Second Cousin of Napoleon II
   • Son of Napoleon III

Was the only child of Emperor Napoleon III of France and his Empress consort Eugénie de Montijo. His early death in Africa sent shock waves throughout Europe, as he was the last dynastic hope for the restoration of the Bonapartes to the throne of France.

List of claimants to the Imperial Throne

Each claimant is son of the previous claimant, except where otherwise noted.

  • Napoléon I (Napoléon Bonaparte) 1814-1815, 1815-1821 (from 1804 to 1814, and again in 1815, Napoléon Bonaparte was Emperor of the French in fact)
  • Napoléon II (Napoléon François, Duke of Reichstadt) 1821-1832
  • Joseph I (Joseph Bonaparte) 1832-1844, brother of Napoléon Bonaparte
  • Louis I (Louis Bonaparte) 1844-1846, brother of Napoléon Bonaparte
  • Napoléon III (Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) 1846-1852, 1870-1873 (from 1852 until 1870, Louis Napoléon Bonaparte was Emperor of the French (as Napoléon III) in fact)
  • Napoléon IV Eugène (Napoléon Eugène, Prince Imperial) 1873-1879, son of Napoléon III
  • Napoléon V Victor (Prince Napoléon Victor Bonaparte) 1879-1926, grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte
  • Napoléon VI Louis (Prince Louis Napoléon) 1926-1997, great-grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte

After this point, the succession is disputed between father and son, son and grandson respectively of Napoléon VI Louis.

  • Napoléon VII Charles (Prince Charles Napoléon) 1997-Present
  • Napoléon VIII Jean-Christophe (Prince Jean-Christophe Napoléon) 1997-present

Current line of succession

Line of succession from Prince Charles Napoléon (Napoléon VII Charles)

  1. HIH Prince Jean-Christophe Napoléon (Born 1986), Charles' son (Napoléon VII Jean-Christophe)
  2. HIH Prince Jérôme Xavier Bonaparte (Born 1957), Charles' brother
Imperial House of Bonaparte
The House of Bonaparte is an imperial and royal European dynasty founded by Napoleon I of France in 1804, a French military leader who rose to notability out of the French Revolution and transformed the French Republic into the First French Empire within five years of his coup d'état. Napoleon turned the Grande Armée against every major European power and dominated continental Europe through a series of military victories. He installed members of his family on the thrones of client states, founding the dynasty.

Throughout its history, the dynasty, as well as being Emperors of the French, held various other titles and territories including; their ancestral nation the Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Spain, Kingdom of Westphalia, Kingdom of Holland and the Kingdom of Naples. The dynasty was in a position of power for around a decade until the Napoleonic Wars began to take their toll. Making very powerful enemies such as Austria, United Kingdom, Russia and Prussia, as well as royalist (particularly Bourbon) restorational movements in France, Spain, the Two Sicilies and Sardinia, the dynasty eventually collapsed under its own weight.

Between the years 1852 and 1870 there was a Second French Empire, again a member of the Bonaparte dynasty would rule; Napoleon III of France the son of Louis Bonaparte. However after tensions relating to Prussia, the dynasty was again ousted from the imperial throne. Since that time there has been a series of pretenders, supporters of the Bonaparte family's claim to the throne of France are known as Bonapartists. Current head Jean-Christophe Napoléon is ironically from a Bourbon mother. The Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family were from minor Italian nobility who held most of their property in the hill town of San Miniato near Florence, Italy. The Buonapartes came from a Tuscan stock of Lombard origin. The name derives from Italian, buona, "good" and parte, "part" or "side".

After settling in Florence the family enjoyed a relationship with the then ruling Medici family. Jacopo Buonaparte was a friend and advisor to Medici Pope Clement VII. Jacopo was also a witness to and wrote an account of the sack of Rome, which is one of the most important historical documents recounting that event. Two of Jacopo's nephews, Pier Antonio Buonaparte and Giovanni Buonaparte, however, took part in the 1527 Medici rebellion, after which they were banished from Florence and later were restored by Alessandro de' Medici. Jacopo's brother Benedetto Buonaparte maintained political neutrality. The family later separated into two branches: Buonaparte-Sarzana, Nobili di Sarzana had been compelled to leave Florence due to the defeat of the Ghibellines and later when Francesco Buonaparte came to Corsica in 16th century and the island was in Genoese possession. The Buonaparte tomb lies in the Church of San Francesco in San Miniato.


The arms of the Bonaparte family were: Gules two bends sinister between two mullets or. In 1804 Napoleon changed the arms to Azure an imperial eagle or. The change applied to all members of his family except for his brother Lucien, and the son of Jerome's first marriage. 

Crowns held by the Bonaparte Family

Emperors of the French

  • Napoleon I (1804-1814, 1815), also King of Italy (1805-1814) and Emperor in Elba (1814-1815)
  • Napoleon II (1815), styled King of Rome from birth, but never reigned
  • Napoleon III (1852-1870)

Kings of Holland

  • Louis I (1806-1810)
  • Louis II (1810), also Grand Duke of Berg (1809-1813)

King of Naples

  • Joseph I (1806-1808)

King of Westphalia

  • Jérôme I (1807-1813)

King of Spain

  • Joseph I (1808-1813)

Grand Duchess of Tuscany

  • Elisa Bonaparte (1809-1814)
Family Titles and Styles of the House 
The present members of this family bear the title Prince or Princess Napoléon, together with the formal appellation of His or Her Imperial Highness. The titles of past members are as indicated.
The Genealogy of the Imperial House
Carlo Maria Buonaparte (Bonaparte) (Ajaccio 29 Mar 1746-Montpellier 24 Feb 1785) m.Ajaccio 2 Jun 1764 Marie Laetitia Ramolino [from 18 May 1804 "Madame Mère de l'Empereur", Imperial Highness] (Ajaccio 24 Aug 1749/50-Rome 2 Feb 1836)
1a) Napoleone, b.and d.Corte 1765

2a) Maria Anna, b.Corte 3 Jan 1767, d.in infancy

3a) Joseph, Prince français (Imperial Highness) 1804, King of Naples and Sicily 30 Mar 1806-6 Jun 1808, King of Spain and the Indies 6 Jun 1808-11 Dec 1813, assumed the title Cte de Survilliers 1815 (Corte 7 Jan 1768-Florence 28 Jul 1844); m.Cuges 1 Aug 1794 Julie Clary (Marseilles 26 Dec 1771-Florence 7 Apr 1845)

1b) Julie Joséphine, b.and d.Genoa Mar 1796

2b) Zénaïde Laetitia Julie, Pss française (Imperial Highness) 1804, Infanta of Spain 1808-13, Pss Bonaparte (Highness) 1852 (Paris 8 Jul 1801-Naples 8 Aug 1854); m.Brussels 29 Jun 1822 Charles Lucien Bonaparte (1803-1857; below)

3b) Charlotte Napoléone, Pss française (Imperial Highness) 1804, Infanta of Spain 1808-13 (Paris 31 Oct 1802-Sarzana 2 Mar 1839); m.Brussels 23 Jul 1826 Napoléon Louis Bonaparte (1803-1831; below)

4a) Napoléon, proclaimed Emperor NAPOLÉON I of the French 18 May 1804, abdicated 11 Apr 1814, returned 12 Mar 1815, abdicated again 22 Jun 1815 (Ajaccio 15 Aug 1769-Longwood, St.Helena 5 May 1821); m.1st (civ) Paris 9 Mar 1796 (rel) Palais de Tuileries 30 Oct 1804 (div 1809, rel annulled 1810) Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie (Trois Ilets, Martinique 24 Jun 1763-Malmaison 29 May 1814); m.2d by proxy at Vienna 11 Mar 1810 and in person (civ) St.Cloud 1 Apr 1810 (rel) Louvre 2 Apr 1810 Maria Louise Archdss of Austria (Vienna 12 Dec 1791-Vienna 17 Dec 1847)

1b) NAPOLÉON II François Joseph Charles, Emperor of the French (so recognized by some from his father's second abdication until he was deposed 3 Jul 1815, cr Duke von Reichstadt (Serene Highness) 22 Jul 1818, by the Austrian Emperor (Château des Tuileries 20 Mar 1811-Schönbrunn 22 Jul 1832)

5a) Maria Anna (Ajaccio 14 Jul 1771-Ajaccio Dec 1776)

6a) Lucien, Pr français (Imperial Highness) 22 Mar 1815, Pr di Canino 18 Aug 1814, Pr di Musignano 21 Mar 1824 (both papal titles) (Ajaccio 21 Mar 1775-Viterbo 29 Jun 1840); m.1st St.Maximin 4 May 1794 Christine Boyer (St.Maximin 6 Jul 1773-Paris 14 May 1800); m.2d Paris (rel) 25 May 1803 (civ) Chamant 26 Oct 1803 Alexandrine de Bleschamp (Calais 23 Feb 1778-Sinigaglia 12 Jul 1855)

1b) Christine Charlotte, Pss française (Imperial Highness) 22 Mar 1815, Pss Bonaparte (Highness) 1853 (St.Maximin 22 Feb 1795-Rome 6 May 1865); m.1st Rome 27 Dec 1815 Don Mario Pr Gabrielli (Rome 6 Dec 1773-Rome 18 Sep 1841); m.2d 1842 cavaliere Settimio Centamori

2b) a son, b.and d.Augsburg 13 Mar 1796

3b) Victoire Gertrude, b.and d.Ajaccio 1797

4b) Christine Charlotte Alexandrine Egypta, Pss française (Imperial Highness) 22 Mar 1815 (Paris 19 Oct 1798-Rome 19 May 1847); m.1st Rome 18 Mar 1818 (div 1824) Ct Arvid Posse (Sweden 11 Jun 1782-Washington May 1826); m.2d 20 Jul 1824 Lord Dudley Coutts Stuart (London 11 Jan 1803-Stockholm 17 Nov 1854)

5b) Jules Laurent Lucien, later called Charles Lucien Jules Laurent, 2d Pr di Canino e Musignano, Pr française (Imperial Highness) 22 Mar 1815, Pr Bonaparte (Highness) 21 Feb 1853, cr Pr Bonaparte (male primogeniture) by Pope Pius IX 17 Jan 1854 (Paris 24 May 1803-Paris 29 Jul 1857); m.Brussels 29 Jun 1822 Pss Zénaïde Bonaparte (1801-1854; above)

1c) Joseph Lucien Charles Napoléon, 3d Pr di Canino e Musignano (Philadelphia 13 Feb 1824-Rome 2 Sep 1865)

2c) Alexandrine Gertrude Zénaïde (Point Breeze USA 9 Jun 1826-Leghorn May 1828)

3c) Lucien Louis Joseph Napoléon, 4th Pr di Canino e Musignano, Cardinal 1868 (Rome 15 Nov 1828-Rome 19 Nov 1895)

4c) Julie Charlotte Pauline Zénaïde Laetitia Désirée Bartholomée (Rome 5 Jun 1830-Rome 28 Oct 1900); m.Rome 30 Aug 1847 Don Alessandro del Gallo Marchese di Roccagiovine (15 Mar 1826-30 Nov 1892)

5c) Charlotte Honorine Joséphine Pauline (Rome 4 Mar 1832-Ariccia 10 Sep 1901); m.Rome 4 Oct 1848 Pietro Cte Primoli di Foglia (Rome 5 Jul 1821-Rome 30 Dec 1883)

6c) Léonie Stéphanie Elise (Florence 18 Sep 1833-Aricia 14 Sep 1839)

7c) Marie Désirée Eugénie Joséphine Philomène (Rome 18 Mar 1835-Spoleto 28 Aug 1890); m.Rome 2 Mar 1851 Paolo Cte Campello della Spina (21 Mar 1829/31-1917)

8c) Augusta Amélie Maximilienne Jacqueline (Rome 9 Nov 1836-Rome 29 Mar 1900); m.Rome 1 Feb 1836 Don Placido Pr Gabrielli (Rome 9 Nov 1832-Rome 3 Sep 1911)

9c) Napoléon Charles Grégoire Jacques Philippe 5th Pr di Canino e Musignano, granted the style "Highness" on his marriage, recognized as "Principe Romano" (Excellence) 1895 (Rome 5 Feb 1839-Rome 11 Feb 1899); m.Rome 25 Nov 1859 Maria Cristina dei Principi Ruspoli (Rome 25 Jul 1842-Rome 12 Feb 1907)

1d) Zénaïde Eugénie (Rome 29 Sep 1860-Rome 14 Sep 1862)

2d) Marie Léonie Eugénie Mathilde Jeanne Julie Zénaïde (Rome 10 Dec 1870-Rome 1947); m.Rome 26 Nov 1891 Enrico Gotti (Turin 18 Jul 1867-k.a.in Albania 6 Jun 1920)

3d) Eugénie Laetitia Barbe Caroline Lucienne Marie Jeanne (Grotta Ferrata 6 Sep 1872-Paris 1949); m.Rome 16 Nov 1898 (judicially separated 1903) Napoléon Ney, Pr de Moskowa, Duc d'Elchingen (Paris 11 Jan 1870-Paris 21 Oct 1928)

10c) Bathilde Aloïse Léonie (Rome 26 Nov 1840-Paris 9 Jun 1861); m.Paris 14 Oct 1856 Louis Cte de Cambacérès (Paris 22 Aug 1832-Chamonix 22 Aug 1868)

11c) Albertine Marie Thérèse (Florence 12 Mar 1842-Rome 3 Jun 1842)

12c) Charles Albert (Rome 22 Mar 1843-Rome 6 Dec 1847)

6b) Laetitia Christine, Pss française (Imperial Highness) 22 Mar 1815, recognized as Pss Bonaparte (Highness) 21 Feb 1853 (Milan 1 Dec 1804-Viterbo 15 Mar 1871); m.Canino 4 Mar 1821 Sir Thomas Wyse (Dumfree, Ireland 9 Dec 1791-Athens 15 Apr 1862)

7b) Joseph Lucien (Rome 14 Jun 1806-Rome 15 Aug 1807)

8b) Jeanne, Pss française (Imperial Highness) 22 Mar 1815 (Rome 22 Jul 1807-Jesi 22 Sep 1829); m.Canino Jun 1825 Marchese Honorato Honorati (May 1800-Jesi 20 Jul 1856)

9b) Paul Marie, Pr français 22 Mar 1815 (Imperial Highness) (Canino 3 Nov 1808-d.at sea off Nauplia, Greece 5 Dec 1827)

10b) Louis Lucien Pr français (Imperial Highness) 22 Mar 1815, recognized as Pr Bonaparte (Highness) 21 Feb 1853 (Grimley, Worcs 4 Jan 1813-Fano 3 Nov 1891); m.1st Florence 4 Oct 1832 (separated 1850) Maria Anna Cecchi (Lucca 27 Mar 1813-Ajaccio 17 Mar 1891); m.2d London 15 Jun 1891 Clémence Richard (23 Nov 1830-London 14 Nov 1915)

1c) [by 2d wife, before marriage] Louis Clovis (11 Feb 1859-14 May 1894); m.1st Douglas, Isle of Man 30 May 1888 (annulled 1891) Rosalie Barlow; m.2d 14 Oct 1891 Laura Elizabeth Scott (London 3 Jul 1872-London 13 Apr 1953)

11b) Pierre Napoléon, Pr français (Imperial Highness), recognized as Pr Bonaparte (Highness) 21 Feb 1853 (Rome 11 Oct 1815-Versailles 7 Apr 1881); m.(rel) in Belgium 22 Mar 1853 (civ) La Cuisine, Belgium 2 Oct 1867 and again at Brussels 11 Nov 1871 Justine Eléonore Ruffin (Paris 2 Jul 1832-Paris 19 Oct 1905); Note: CEDRE says that there was no 1853 marriage and that the children born to this couple were born before marriage

1c) Roland, by right 6th Pr di Canino e Musignano, but never assumed the title (Paris 19 May 1858-Paris 14 Apr 1924); m.Paris 18 Nov 1880 Marie Blanc (Paris 23 Dec 1859-St.Cloud 1 Aug 1882)

1d) Marie (St.Cloud 2 Jul 1882-Gassin 21 Sep 1962); m.(civ) Paris 21 Nov 1907 (rel) Athens 12 Dec 1907 George Pr of Greece and Denmark (Corfu 24 Jun 1869-St.Cloud 25 Nov 1957)

2c) Jeanne (Abbey of Orval, Belgium 25 Sep 1861-Paris 23 Jul 1910); m.Paris 22 Mar 1882 Christian Marquis de Villeneuve-Escaplon (Aix-en-Provence 8 Aug 1852-Paris 3 Apr 1931)

12b) Antoine Lucien, Pr français (Imperial Highness), recognized as Pr Bonaparte (Highness) 21 Feb 1853 (Frascati 31 Oct 1816-Florence 28 Mar 1877); m.9 Jul 1839 Carolina Maria Anna Cardinali (Lucca 24 Feb 1823-Florence 10 Oct 1879)

13b) Alexandrine Marie, Pss française (Imperial Highness), recognized as Pss Bonaparte (Highness) 21 Feb 1853 (Perugia 10 Oct 1818-Florence 20 Aug 1874); m.29 Jul 1836 Vincenzo Cte Valentini di Laviano (Canino 5 Apr 1808-Canino 13 Jul 1858)

14b) Constance, Pss française (Imperial Highness), recognized as Pss Bonaparte (Highness) 21 Feb 1853 (Bologna 30 Jan 1823-Rome 5 Sep 1876)

7a) Marie Anne Elisa Pss française (Imperial Highness) 18 May 1804, Dss of Lucca and Pss of Piombino 19 Mar 1805, Grand Dss of Tuscany 3 Mar 1809-1 Feb 1814, later assumed title Ctsa di Compignano (Ajaccio 3 Jan 1777-Villa Vincentini, nr Trieste 7 Aug 1820); m.Marseille 1 May 1797 Félix Bacciochi, cr Pr français (Imperial Highness) 18 May 1804, Duke of Lucca and Pr of Piombino 24 Jun 1805-18 Mar 1814, Pr di Massa-Carrara e La Garfagnana 30 Mar 1806 (Ajaccio 18 May 1762-Bologna 27 Apr 1841)

8a) Louis, Pr français (Imperial Highness) 18 May 1804, King of Holland 5 Jun 1806-1 Jul 1810, when he abdicated in favor of his son, assumed the title Cte de Saint-Leu (Ajaccio 2 Sep 1778-Leghorn 25 Jul 1846); m.Paris 4 Jan 1802 Hortense de Beauharnais, cr Dss de Saint-Leu 30 May 1814 (Paris 10 Apr 1783-Château de Arenenberg, Switzerland 5 Oct 1837)

1b) Napoléon Louis Charles, Pr français (Imperial Highness) 18 May 1804, Pr Royal of Holland 5 Jun 1806 (Paris 10 Oct 1802-The Hague 5 May 1807)

2b) Napoléon Louis, Pr français (Imperial Highness), Pr Royal of Holland 5 May 1807, Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves 3 Mar 1809-1 Dec 1813, nominal King of Holland 1-9 Jul 1810 (Paris 11 Oct 1804-Rome 17 Mar 1831); m.Brussels 23 Jul 1826 Charlotte Bonaparte (1802-1839; above)

3b) Charles Louis Napoléon, Pr français (Imperial Highness) and Pr of Holland, President of France 10 Dec 1848, became NAPOLÉON III, Emperor of the French 2 Dec 1852 (Paris 20 Apr 1808-Camden Place, Chislehurst, Kent 9 Jan 1873); m.(civ) Château des Tuileries 29 Jan 1853 (rel) Notre Dame Cathedral 30 Jan 1853 Eugénie Rojas y Kirkpatrick Cdsa de Mora, etc (Granada 5 May 1826-Madrid 11 Jul 1920)

1c) NAPOLÉON [IV] Louis Eugène Jean Joseph, Pr Imperial (Château des Tuileries 16 Mar 1856-d.on active service at Ulundi, Zululand 1 Jun 1879)

9a) Marie Pauline Pss française (Imperial Highness) 18 May 1804, Dss of Guastalla 30 Mar 1806-24 May 1806 (Ajaccio 20 Oct 1780-Borghese Palace, nr Florence 9 Jun 1825); m.1st Mombello 14 Jun 1797 Victor Emanuel Leclerc (Pontoise 17 Mar 1772-San Domingo 2 Nov 1802); m.2d Mortefontaine (rel) 28 Aug 1803 (civ) 6 Nov 1803 Don Camillo Borghese Pr di Sulmona e di Rossano, Duke of Guastalla 30 Mar 1806-24 May 1806 (Rome 19 Jul 1775-Florence 10 Apr 1832)

10a) Marie Annonciade Caroline Pss française (Imperial Highness) 18 May 1804, later assumed title Ctsa Lipona (Ajaccio 25 Mar 1782-Florence 18 May 1839); m.(civ) Mortefontaine 20 Jan 1800 (rel) Paris 4 Jan 1802 Joachim Murat, Pr Français (Imperial Highness) 18 May 1804, Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves 15 Mar 1806-1 Aug 1808, King of Naples and Sicily 1 Aug 1808-19 May 1815 (La Bastide-Fortunière 25 Mar 1767-Castello di Pizzo 13 Oct 1815)

11a) Jérôme, Pr français (Imperial Highness) 24 Sep 1806, King of Westphalia 8 Jul 1807-26 Oct 1813, cr Pr von Montfort by the King of Württemberg 31 Jul 1816, confirmed as Pr français 23 Dec 1852 (Ajaccio 15 Nov 1784-Paris 24 Jun 1860); m.1st Baltimore, Maryland 24 Dec 1803 (annulled 1805) Elizabeth Patterson (Baltimore Feb 1785-Baltimore 4 Apr 1879); m.2d by proxy at Stuttgart 12 Aug 1807 and in person at Palais des Tuileries (rel) 22 Aug 1807 and (civ) 23 Aug 1807 Catharine Pss of Württemberg (St.Petersburg 21 Feb 1783-Villa Mon Repos, nr Lausanne 28 Nov 1835); m.3d (rel) 1840 (civ) Paris 19 Jan 1853 Giustina Pecori-Suárez (Florence 27 Nov 1811-Florence 30 Jan 1903)

1b) Jerome Napoleon (Camberwell, Surrey 7 Jul 1805-Baltimore 17 Jun 1870); m.Baltimore 3 Nov 1829 Susan May Williams (Baltimore 2 Apr 1812-Baltimore 15 Sep 1881)

1c) Jerome Napoleon (Baltimore 5 Nov 1830-Pride's Crossing, Massachusetts 3 Sep 1893); m.7 Sep 1871 Caroline Le Roy Appleton (Boston 4 Oct 1841-Washington 19 Nov 1911)

1d ) Louise Eugenie (Baltimore 7 Feb 1873-Biarritz 22 Jan 1923); m.Washington 29 Dec 1896 Adam Ct af Moltke-Hvitfeld (Paris 31 Jul 1864-Copenhagen 9 Oct 1944)

2d) Jerome Napoleon Charles (Paris 26 Feb 1878-New York 10 Nov 1945); m.New York 8 Apr 1914 Blanche Pierce (Newtonville, Massachusetts 6 Sep 1872-Blythewood, Connecticut 28 Jul 1950)

2c) Charles Joseph (Baltimore 9 Jun 1851-Bella Vista, nr Baltimore 28 Jun 1921); m.Newport, Rhode Island 1 Sep 1875 Ellen Channing Day (Hartford, Connecticut 25 Sep 1852-Washington 23 Jun 1924)

2b) Jérôme Napoléon Charles, Pr français (Imperial Highness), Pr von Montfort (Trieste 24 Aug 1814-Florence 12 May 1847)

3b) Mathilde Laetitia Wilhelmine, Pss française (Imperial Highness), titles confirmed 21 Feb 1853 (Trieste 27 May 1820-Paris 2 Jan 1904); m.Florence 1 Nov 1840 (separated 1843) Anatole Demidoff Pr di San Donato (Moscow 5 Apr 1813-Paris 29 Apr 1870)

4b) NAPOLÉON Joseph Charles Paul, Pr Napoléon, Pr français (Imperial Highness), titles confirmed 23 Dec 1852, assumed title Cte de Meudon, cr Cte di Moncalieri 1 Nov 1870 (Trieste 9 Sep 1822-Rome 18 Mar 1891); m.Turin 13 Jan 1859 Clothilde Pss of Savoy (Turin 2 Mar 1843-Moncalieri 25 Jun 1911)

1c) Napoléon VICTOR Jérôme Frédéric, Pr Napoléon (Palais Royal 18 Jul 1862-Brussels 3 May 1926); m.Moncalieri 14 Nov 1910 Clémentine Pss of Belgium (Laeken 30 Jul 1872-Nice 8 Mar 1955)

1d) Marie Clotilde Eugénie Alberte Laetitia Généviève (Brussels 20 Mar 1912-Château de la Pommerie Apr 1996); m.London 17 Oct 1938 Ct Serge de Witt (Moscow 30 Dec 1891- Cendrieux 21 Jul 1990)

2d) LOUIS Jérôme Victor Emmanuel Léopold Marie, Prince Napoléon (Brussels 23 Jan 1914-Prangins, Switzerland 4 May 1997); m.Linières-Bouton 16 Aug 1949 Alix de Foresta (b.Marseille 4 Apr 1926); Pr Louis is said to have directed before his death that the headship of the family should devolve upon his grandson, Jean Christophe, bypassing his own elder son, Charles, because of various disagreements between the two.

1e) Charles Marie Jérôme Victor, b.Boulogne-sur-Seine 19 Oct 1950; m.1st Paris 19 Dec 1978 (div 1989) Béatrice Pss of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (b.St.Raphaël 16 Jun 1950); m.2d Boulogne-Billancourt 28 Sep 1996 Jeanne Françoise Valliccionni (b.Ortiporio 26 Mar 1958)

1f) Caroline Marie Constance, b.Paris 24 Oct 1980; m.Neuilly 27 Jun 2009 (rel) Castellabate nel Cilento 19 Sep 2009 Eric Alain Marie Quérénet-Onfroy de Breville (b.Neuilly 20 Jun 1971)

2f) JEAN-CHRISTOPHE Louis Ferdinand Albéric, Prince Napoléon, b.St.Raphaël 11 Jul 1986

3f) [by 2nd wife] Sophie Cathérine, b.Paris 18 Apr 1992

2e) Catherine Elisabeth Albérique Marie, b.Boulogne-sur-Seine 19 Oct 1950; m.1st (civ) Nyon, Switzerland 4 Jun 1974 (rel) Prangins, Switzerland 5 Jun1974 (div) Nicolò San Martino d'Agliè dei Marchesi di Fontanetto (b.Campiglione 3 Jul 1948); m.2d Paris 13 Oct 1982 Jean Dualé (b.Medjez-el-Bab, Tunisia 3 Nov 1936)

3e) Laure Clémentine Geneviève, b.Paris 8 Oct 1952; m.Grenoble 23 Dec 1982 Jean-Claude Leconte (b.Ax-les-Thermes 15 Mar 1948)

4e) Jérôme Xavier Marie Joseph Victor, b.Boulogne-sur-Seine 14 Jan 1957

2c) Napoléon Louis Joseph Jérôme (Château de Meudon 16 Jul 1864-Prangins, Switzerland 14 Oct 1932)

3c) Marie Laetitia Eugénie Catherine Adélaïde (Paris 20 Dec 1866-Moncalieri 25 Oct 1926); m.Turin 11 Sep 1888 Amedeo Pr of Savoy, Duke of Aosta (Turin 30 May 1845-Turin 18 Jan 1890)

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