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Princely and Ducal - CI
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Princely and Ducal - DI
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Princely and Ducal - GI
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Princely and Ducal - LI
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Princely and Ducal - RI
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Princely and Ducal - SI
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Nobility of Holy Roman Empire - I
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British Peerage Part I
British Peerage Part II
British Peerage Part III - A
British Peerage Part III - B
British Peerage Part IV
Higher Nobility I
Higher Nobility II
Higher Nobility III
Higher Nobility IV
Higher Nobility V
Higher Nobility VI
Higher Nobility VII
Higher Nobility VIII
Higher Nobility IX
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Higher Nobility XIV
Higher Nobility XV
Higher Nobility XVI
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Empire of Japan
State of Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Kingdom of Lesotho
Malaysia
State of Kuwait
Kingdom of Thailand
Kingdom of Burundi
Kingdom of Yemen
Mughal Empire

 

British Peerage System
Volume V - Part I

 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/74/Coat_of_Arms_of_Andrew%2C_Duke_of_York.svg/514px-Coat_of_Arms_of_Andrew%2C_Duke_of_York.svg.png

British Peerage: Royal Dukedoms 

Style, His Royal Highness The Duke of __ 

With the exceptions of the dukedoms of Cornwall and Rothesay (which can only be held by the eldest son of the Sovereign), these dukedoms are hereditary according to the Letters Patent that created them, which contain the standard remainder "heirs male of his body". The British monarch also holds and is  entitled to the revenues of the Duchy of Lancaster, and within the borders of the County Palatine of Lancashire is by tradition saluted as "The Duke of  Lancaster" (even when the monarch is a Queen regnant, she does not use the title Duchess). She also rules the Channel Islands as Duke of Normandy.

duke-of-sussex.jpg

Past Royal Dukedoms include:

* Albany * Albemarle * Bedford * Windsor * Clarence 
* Connaught * Cumberland * Hereford * Kendal * Sussex

The Hanoverians occasionally combined two territorial designations into a single royal dukedom - for example, the Duke of York and Albany. Other combinations included Gloucester and Edinburgh, Cumberland and Strathearn, Clarence and St Andrews, Kent and Strathearn, Cumberland and Teviotdale, Connaught and Strathearn and Clarence and Avondale. The idea was often to combine an English title with a Scottish one, emphasizing the unity of the (then new) United Kingdom. Such Hanoverian Dukes were generally also given an Irish title.

The dukedoms of Albany and Cumberland are not vacant but were suspended in 1919, as their holders were also reigning German rulers when Britain was at war with Germany in World War I; there still exist heirs to these titles who could apply for their restoration. There was speculation that Prince Edward would receive a dukedom such as Cambridge or Sussex upon his marriage in 1999, but instead he received the lesser title Earl of Wessex. At the same time as his creation as Earl of Wessex, it was announced that Prince Edward will be created Duke of Edinburgh on the death of both of his parents as Prince Charles will succeed to the title on his father's death. The Dukedom of Edinburgh will become a non-royal dukedom with Prince Edward's descendants.

In the United Kingdom, there is nothing about a particular dukedom that makes it "royal". Rather, these peerages are called Royal Dukedoms because they are held by a member of the royal family who is entitled to the style Royal Highness.  Although the term Royal Duke therefore has no official meaning per se, the category "Duke of the Blood Royal" was acknowledged as a rank conferring special precedence at court in the unrevoked 20th clause of the Lord Chamberlain's order of 1520. This decree accorded precedence to any peer related by blood to the Sovereign above all others of the same degree within the peerage. The order did not apply within Parliament, nor did it grant precedence above the Archbishop of Canterbury or other Great Officers of State such as is now enjoyed by royal dukes. But it placed junior Dukes of the Blood Royal above the most senior non-royal duke, junior Earls of the Blood Royal above the most senior non-royal earl, etc. It did not matter how distantly related to the monarch the peers might be (presumably they ranked among each other in order of succession to the Crown). Although legally "time does not run against the King", so that the 1520 order is theoretically still in effect, in fact the "Blood Royal" clause seems to have fallen into desuetude sometime in the 19th century. Thus peers of the Blood Royal who are not grandchildren of a Sovereign no longer enjoy precedence above other peers.

Under the 20 November 1917, Letters Patent of King George V, the titular dignity of Prince or Princess and the style Royal Highness are restricted to the legitimate children of a Sovereign, the sons of a Sovereign's sons, and the eldest living son ofthe eldest son of a Prince of Wales. For example, when the current Duke of Gloucester and Duke of Kent are succeeded by their eldest sons, the Earl of Ulster and the Earl of St. Andrews, respectively, those peerages (or rather, the 1928 and 1934 creations of them) will cease to be royal dukedoms, instead the title holders will become ordinary Dukes. The third dukes of Gloucester and Kent will each be styled "His Grace" because as great-grandsons of George V, they are not Princes and are not styled HRH. Similarly, upon the death of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught (1850-1942), the third son of Queen Victoria, his only male-line grandson, Alastair Arthur Windsor, Earl of MacDuff (1914-43), briefly succeeded to his peerages. However, as a duke, the second Duke of Connaught, amale-line great grandson of Queen Victoria, he was simply styled "His Grace".

The sovereign's eldest daughter is typically created Princess Royal, and her marriage may create an interesting situation. Princess Louise, daughter of King Edward VII, married the 6th Earl of Fife in 1889; he was elevated to the title Duke of Fife, and his wife was styled HRH The Duchess of Fife. The dukedom was a non-royal one and it continues today. Princess Mary, daughter of King George V, married Viscount Lascelles-who succeeded as the 6th Earl of Harewood-in 1922, retaining her HRH; there was no elevation to a dukedom.  Anne, Princess Royal, daughter of Queen Elizabeth II, has taken no title for herself or either of her commoner husbands, though there is absolutely nothing to impede the Sovereign creating a title-almost certainly an earldom, as for HRH Princess Margaret on her marriage to a commoner as Earl of Snowdon in 1961-at any time.

Sons of the sovereign are usually granted a dukedom upon marriage. Queen Victoria made her some of her grandsons Royal Dukes. Queen Elizabeth II could choose to do the same. While non-royal dukes are entitled to a coronet of eight strawberry leaves, to bear at a coronation and on his coat of arms, royal dukes are entitled to princely  coronets (four crosses patée alternating with four strawberry leaves). The coronets of the royal family are dictated by letters patent. The Duke of York bears by letters patent, and the Duke of Edinburgh was granted in 1947 use of, the coronet of a child of the Sovereign (four crosses patée alternating with four fleurs-de-lis), while the Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay has use of the heir apparent's coronet, and the current Dukes of Gloucester and of Kent, as grandsons of a Sovereign bear the corresponding coronet.   

 princesskateandprincewilliam.jpg

List of the 7 Royal Dukedoms within the British Peerage system  

CreatedTitle, order of succession, name, etc.Heir
1337ECornwall, Charles, Prince of Wales, b. 1948, s. 1952, m.§
1947UKEdinburgh (1st), The Prince Philip, b. 1921, m.The Prince of Wales, b. 1948
1928UKGloucester (2nd), Prince Richard, b. 1944, s. 1974, m.Earl of Ulster, b. 1974
1934UKKent (2nd), Prince Edward, b. 1935, s. 1942, m.Earl of St Andrews, b. 1962
1398SRothesay, Charles, Prince of Wales, b. 1948, s. 1952, m.§
1986UKYork (1st), The Prince Andrew, b. 1960, m.None
 2011 UKCambridge (1st), Prince William of Wales, b. 1982, mNone
 § The title is not hereditary but is held by the Sovereign's eldest son from 
the later of (a) the moment of his birth, or (b) the Sovereign's accession   

dukes-coronet.jpg 

British Peerage: Dukedoms

Coronet, Eight strawberry leaves Style, His Grace the Duke of ___ Wife's style, Her Grace the Duchess of ___  Eldest son's style, Takes his father's second title as a courtesy title Younger sons' style, 'Lord' before forename and family name Daughters' style, 'Lady' before forename and family name

Edward III of England created the first three dukedoms of England (Cornwall, Lancaster and Clarence). His eldest son Edward was created Duke of Cornwall, the first English Duke, in 1337. Two weeks after his death the dukedom was recreated for the 9 year old Richard II who would eventually succeed his grandfather. The Dukes of Cornwall are not
numbered as part of their style.

The second dukedom was originally was given to Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, but upon his death was re-created for the 3rd son of Edward III, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster. On that same day Edward III also created a dukedom for his second son, Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence. When Richard II reached majority, he created  dukedoms for his last two uncles on the same day: Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, and Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester.

By the end of the Middle Ages, traditionally marked by the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485, a total of 31 dukedoms (with 16 distinct titles) had been created; yet only those of Cornwall and Lancaster remained. The duchy of Cornwall was permanently associated with the heir apparent, and the duchy of Lancaster became crown property. The first Duke of Norfolk had died in the battle of Bosworth Field in 1485. Three decades later the Dukedom of Norfolk was restored to his son by Henry VIII. Thus when Elizabeth I came to power the only living duke was Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk. Elizabeth did not create any dukes, and she beheaded Thomas Howard at the age of 36 for plotting to wed Mary, Queen of Scots and overthrow her. There were no Dukes for the last 30 years of her reign. The extant Dukedoms  in the Peerage of England were all created (or restored, in the cases of Norfolk and Somerset) in the Stuart period.

 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/Coat_of_Arms_of_the_Duke_of_Norfolk%2C_the_Earl_Marshal.svg/232px-Coat_of_Arms_of_the_Duke_of_Norfolk%2C_the_Earl_Marshal.svg.png

List of the 29 Dukedoms within the British Peerage system 

CreatedTitle, order of succession, name, etc.Heir
1868IAbercorn (5th), James Hamilton, b. 1934, s. 1979, m.Marquess of Hamilton, b. 1969
1701SArgyll (13th), Torquhil Ian Campbell, b. 1968, s. 2001, m.Marquess of Kintyre and Lorne, b. 2004
1892UKArgyll (6th), held by the Duke of Argyll 
1703SAtholl (11th), John Murray, b. 1929, s. 1996, m.Marquess of Tullibardine, b. 1960
1682EBeaufort (11th), David Robert Somerset, b. 1928, s. 1984, m.Marquess of Worcester, b. 1952
1694EBedford (15th), Andrew Ian Henry Russell, b. 1962, s. 2003, m.Marquess of Tavistock, b. 2005
1711GBBrandon (12th), held by the Duke of Hamilton 
1663SBuccleuch (9th), Walter Francis John Montagu-Douglas-Scott, b. 1923, s. 1973, m.Earl of Dalkeith, b. 1954
1694EDevonshire (12th), Peregrine Andrew Morny Cavendish, b. 1944, s. 2004, m.Marquess of Hartington, b. 1969
1900UKFife (3rd), James George Alexander Bannerman Carnegie, b. 1929, s. 1959, m.Earl of Southesk, b. 1961
1876UKGordon (5th), held by the Duke of Richmond 
1675EGrafton (11th), Hugh Denis Charles FitzRoy, b. 1919, s. 1970, m.Earl of Euston, b. 1947
1643SHamilton (15th), Angus Alan Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, b. 1938, s. 1973, m.Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale, b. 1978
1766ILeinster (9th), Maurice FitzGerald, b. 1948, s. 2004, m.Capt Lord John FitzGerald, b. 1952
1675SLennox (10th), held by the Duke of Richmond 
1719GBManchester (13th), Alexander Charles David Drogo Montagu, b. 1962, s. 2002, m.Viscount Mandeville, b. 1993
1702EMarlborough (11th), John George Vanderbilt Henry Spencer-Churchill, b. 1926, s. 1972, m.Marquess of Blandford, b. 1955
1707SMontrose (8th), James Graham, b. 1935, s. 1992, m.Marquess of Graham, b. 1973
1483ENorfolk (18th), Edward William Fitzalan-Howard, b. 1956, s. 2002, m.Earl of Arundel and Surrey, b. 1987
1766GBNorthumberland (12th), Ralph George Algernon Percy, b. 1956, s. 1995, m.Earl Percy, b. 1984
1684SQueensberry (11th), held by the Duke of Buccleuch 
1675ERichmond (10th), Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, b. 1929, s. 1989, m.Earl of March and Kinrara, b. 1955
1707SRoxburghe (10th), Guy David Innes-Ker, b. 1954, s. 1974, m.Marquess of Bowmont and Cessford, b. 1981
1703ERutland (11th), David Charles Robert Manners, b. 1959, s. 1999, m.Marquess of Granby, b. 1999
1684ESaint Albans (14th), Murray de Vere Beauclerk, b. 1939, s. 1988, m.Earl of Burford, b. 1965
1547ESomerset (19th), John Michael Edward Seymour, b. 1952, s. 1984, m.Lord Seymour, b. 1982
1833UKSutherland (7th), Francis Ronald Egerton, b. 1940, s. 2000, m.Marquess of Stafford, b. 1975
1814UKWellington (8th), Arthur Valerian Wellesley, b. 1915, s. 1972, m.Marquess of Douro, b. 1945
1874UKWestminster (6th), Gerald Cavendish Grosvenor, b. 1951, s. 1979, m.Earl Grosvenor, b. 1991

 marquess-coronet.gif

British Peerage: Marquessates

Coronet, Four strawberry leaves alternating with four silver balls Style, The Most Hon. the Marquess (of) __ Wife's style, The Most Hon. the Marchioness (of) __ Eldest son's style, Takes his father's second title as a courtesy title Younger sons' style, 'Lord' before forename and family name Daughters' style, 'Lady' before forename and family name * there is no "of" in the title

The Marquessate of Winchester (created in 1551) is the oldest English (and British) marquessate still in existence, and as a result, the holder of the title is considered the "Premier Marquess of England". Since Marquessates in England created after 1707 became Marquessates of Great Britain and, from 1801, of the United Kingdom, he is now the only English Marquess; all other English Marquesses are Dukes who use their title of Marquess as a subsidiary title. Unlike the continent, in England (later Britain, ultimately the UK) the monarchy is the only authority capable of awarding hereditary titles and it has managed to keep a tight grip on aristocratic titles. Thus, there are currently only 34 marquessates.

The first marquess in England was Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford, who was appointed the Marquess of Dublin by King Richard II of England on 1 December 1385. On 13 October 1386, the patent of this marquessate was recalled, and Robert de Vere was raised to the rank of the Duke of Ireland. John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, the second illegitimate son of John of Gaunt, was raised to the second marquessate as the Marquess of Dorset in September 1397. In 1399, he was disgraced, and the king revoked his marquessate. The British House of Commons later petitioned King Henry IV for his restoration but the King objected stating "the name of marquess is a strange name in this realm". From that period the title appears to have been dormant till the reign of Henry VI, when it was revived in 1442. The only woman to be appointed as a marquess in her own right was Anne Boleyn, who was appointed the Marquess of Pembroke in preparation for her marriage to Henry VIII.  The investiture ceremony was held at Windsor Castle on 1 September 1532.

The title Marquess was always more exclusive than that of an Earl. In the late 19th and in the 20th century many Viceroys of India were appointed as marqueses after their resignation. Some of the German relatives of King George V were made Marquesses in the Peerage of Great-Britain after their denouncing of their German princely titles in 1917. Prince Louis of  Battenberg, the princely head of the Battenberg family became the first Marquess of Milford Haven in the peerage of the United Kingdom. A British marquess is formally styled "The Most Honourable The Marquess of [X]" and informally styled "Lord [X]', and his wife "Lady [X]".  As with dukes, all sons bear the courtesy style "Lord Forename [Surname]" and all daughters bear the courtesy style "Lady Forename [Surname]". This courtesy style for the eldest son, however, is often trumped by a subsidiary title of his father, such as earl or viscount,  which is used instead. Especially for signing documents, the signature being only the name  of the title, [X]). This form of signature is true for all peers, including peers by courtesy. For example, the Marquess of Salisbury would sign his name merely "Salisbury".

A marquess by courtesy, however (who would always be the heir to a dukedom, since the courtesy title of an heir must always be at least one rank below that of the peer),  does not enjoy the style of "Most Honourable", but is merely known as Marquess of [X] (the definite article is omitted because the Duke would be THE Marquess of [X]). The genuine marquess as a peer, however, is always the "Most Honourable the Marquess of  [X]", to differentiate a marquess by courtesy (i.e., the heir to a dukedom) from a marquess in his own right. The spelling of the title in Scotland is very often the  "marquis" variation, particularly when the title was created prior to the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.

marquessarms.gif

List of the 55 Marquessates within the British Peerage system 

CreatedTitle, order of succession, name, etc.Heir
1790GBAbercorn (6th), held by the Duke of Abercorn 
1916UKAberdeen and Temair (7th), Alexander George Gordon, b. 1955, s. 2002, m.Earl of Haddo, b. 1983
1876UKAbergavenny (6th), Christopher George Charles Nevill, b. 1955, s. 2000, m.None
1821UKAilesbury (8th), Michael Sidney Cedric Brudenell-Bruce, b. 1926, s. 1974, m.Earl of Cardigan, b. 1952
1831UKAilsa (8th), Archibald Angus Charles Kennedy, b. 1956, s. 1994Lord David Thomas Kennedy, b. 1958
1815UKAnglesey (7th), George Charles Henry Victor Paget, b. 1922, s. 1947, m.Earl of Uxbridge, b. 1950
1676SAtholl (12th), held by the Duke of Atholl 

1789GBBath (7th), Alexander George Thynn, b. 1932, s. 1992, m.Viscount Weymouth, b. 1974
1702EBlandford (11th), held by the Duke of Marlborough 
1707SBowmont and Cessford (10th), held by the Duke of Roxburghe 
1826UKBristol (8th), Frederick William Augustus Hervey, b. 1979, s. 1999Alexander George Hervey, b. 1920
1796GBBute (7th), John Colum Crichton-Stuart, b. 1958, s. 1993, m.Earl of Dumfries, b. 1989

1812UK*Camden (6th), David George Edward Henry Pratt, b. 1930, s. 1983, m.Earl of Brecknock, b. 1965
1815UKCholmondeley (7th), David George Philip Cholmondeley, b. 1960, s. 1990Charles George Cholmondeley, b. 1959
1643SClydesdale (15th), held by the Duke of Hamilton 
1816I*Conyngham (8th), Henry Vivian Pierpoint Conyngham, b. 1951, s. 2009, m.Earl of Mount Charles, b. 1975

1791IDonegall (8th), (Arthur)Patrick Chichester, b. 1952, s. 2007, m.Earl of Belfast, b. 1990
1633SDouglas (12th), held by the Duke of Hamilton 
1814UK*Douro (8th), held by the Duke of Wellington 
1789IDownshire (9th), (Arthur Francis) Nicholas Wills Hill, b. 1959, s. 2003, m.Earl of Hillsborough, b. 1996
1683SDumfriesshire (11th), held by the Duke of Buccleuch 

1801IEly (9th), (Charles) John Tottenham, b. 1943, s. 2006, m.Viscount Loftus, b. 1973
1801UKExeter (8th), (William) Michael Anthony Cecil, b. 1935, s. 1988, m.Lord Burghley, b. 1970

1707SGraham and Buchanan (8th), held by the Duke of Montrose 
1703EGranby (11th), held by the Duke of Rutland 

1868IHamilton (5th), held by the Duke of Abercorn 
1694EHartington (12th), held by the Duke of Devonshire 
1800UKHeadfort (7th), (Thomas Michael Ronald) Christopher Taylour, b. 1959, s. 2005, m.Earl of Bective, b. 1989
1793GBHertford (9th), Henry Jocelyn Seymour, b. 1958, s. 1997, m.Earl of Yarmouth, b. 1993
1599SHuntly (13th), Granville Charles Gomer Gordon, b. 1944, s. 1987, m.Earl of Aboyne, b. 1973

1761IKildare (8th), held by the Duke of Leinster 
1701SKintyre and Lorne (13th), held by the Duke of Argyll 

1784GBLansdowne (9th), Charles Maurice Petty-Fitzmaurice, b. 1941, s. 1999, m.Earl of Shelburne, b. 1970
1902UKLinlithgow (4th), Adrian John Charles Hope, b. 1946, s. 1987, m.Earl of Hopetoun, b. 1969
1816ILondonderry (9th), Alexander Charles Robert Vane-Tempest-Stewart, b. 1937, s. 1955, m.Viscount Castlereagh, b. 1972
1701SLothian (13th), Michael Andrew Foster Jude Kerr, b. 1945, s. 2004, m.Lord Ralph William Francis Joseph Kerr, b. 1954

1917UKMilford Haven (4th), George Ivar Louis Mountbatten, b. 1961, s. 1970, m.Earl of Medina, b. 1991
1644SMontrose (11th), held by the Duke of Montrose 


1838UKNormanby (5th), Constantine Edmund Walter Phipps, b. 1954, s. 1994, m.Earl of Mulgrave, b. 1994
1812UKNorthampton (7th), Spencer Douglas David Compton, b. 1946, s. 1978, m.Earl Compton, b. 1973

1682SQueensberry (12th), David Harrington Angus Douglas, b. 1929, s. 1954, m.Viscount Drumlanrig, b. 1967

1926UKReading (4th), Simon Charles Henry Rufus Isaacs, b. 1942, s. 1980, m.Viscount Erleigh, b. 1986

1789GBSalisbury (7th), Robert Michael James Gascoyne-Cecil, b. 1946, s. 2003, m.Viscount Cranborne, b. 1970
1800ISligo (11th), Jeremy Ulick Browne, b. 1939, s. 1991, m.Sebastian Ulick Browne, b. 1964
1786GBStafford (8th), held by the Duke of Sutherland 

1694ETavistock (15th), held by the Duke of Bedford 
1787GB*Townshend (7th), George John Patrick Dominic Townshend, b. 1916, s. 1921, m.Viscount Raynham, b. 1945
1703STullibardine (11th), held by the Duke of Atholl 
1694STweeddale (14th), Charles David Montagu Hay, b. 1947, s. 2005Lord Alistair James Montagu Hay, b. 1955

1789IWaterford (8th), John Hubert de la Poer Beresford, b. 1933, s. 1934, m.Earl of Tyrone, b. 1958
1812UKWellington (8th), held by the Duke of Wellington 
1831UKWestminster (8th), held by the Duke of Westminster 
1551EWinchester (18th), Nigel George Paulet, b. 1941, s. 1968, m.Earl of Wiltshire, b. 1969
1643EWorcester (13th), held by the Duke of Beaufort 

1892UKZetland (4th), Lawrence Mark Dundas, b. 1937, s. 1989, m.Earl of Ronaldshay, b. 1965

 earlscoronet.jpg

British Peerage: Earldoms

Coronet, Eight silver balls on stalks alternating with eight gold strawberry leaves Style, The Right Hon. the Earl (of) __ Wife's style, The Right Hon. the Countess (of) __ Eldest son's style, Takes his father's second title as a courtesy title Younger sons' style, 'The Hon.' before forename and family name Daughters' style, 'Lady' before forename and family name* there is no "of" in the title.

An earl has the title Earl of [X] when the title originates from a placename, or Earl [X] when the title comes from a surname. In either case, he is referred to as Lord [X], and his wife as Lady [X]. A countess who holds an earldom in her own right also uses Lady [X], but her husband does not have a title (unless he has one in his own right). In Anglo-Saxon England, earls had authority over their own regions and right of judgement in provincial courts, as delegated by the king.  They collected fines and taxes and in return received a "third penny", one-third of the money they collected. In wartime they led the king's armies. Some shires were grouped together into larger units known as earldoms, headed by an ealdorman or earl. Under Edward the Confessor earldoms like Wessex, Mercia, East Anglia and Northumbria-names that represented earlier independent kingdoms-were much larger than any shire.

Earls originally functioned essentially as royal governors. Though the title of Earl was nominally equal to the continental duke, unlike them earls were not de facto rulers in their own right. After the Norman Conquest, William the Conqueror tried to rule England using the traditional system but eventually modified it to his own liking. Shires became the largest secular subdivision in England and earldoms disappeared. The Normans did create new earls like those of Herefordshire, Shropshire, and Cheshire but they were associated with only a single shire at most. Their power and regional jurisdiction was limited to that of the Norman counts. There was no longer any administrative layer larger than the shire, and shires became "counties". Earls no longer aided in tax collection or made decisions in country courts and their numbers were small.

King Stephen increased the number of earls to reward those loyal to him in his war with his cousin Empress Matilda. He gave some earls the right to hold royal castles or control the sheriff and soon other earls assumed these rights themselves. By the end of his reign, some earls held courts of their own and even minted their own coins, against the wishes of the king. It fell to Stephen's successor Henry II to again curtail the power of earls. He took back the control of royal castles and even demolished castles that earls had built for themselves. He did not create new earls or earldoms. No earl was allowed to remain independent of royal control.

The English kings had found it dangerous to give additional power to an already powerful aristocracy, so gradually sheriffs assumed the governing role. The details of this transition remain obscure, since earls in more peripheral areas, such as the Scottish and Welsh marches and Cornwall, retained some viceregal powers long after other earls had lost them. The loosening of central authority during the Anarchy also complicates any smooth description of the changeover.  By the 13th century, earls had a social rank just below the king and princes, but were not necessarily more powerful or wealthier than other noblemen. The only way to become an earl was to inherit the title or marry into one-and the king reserved a right to prevent the transfer of the title. By the 14th century, creating an earl included a special public ceremony where the king personally tied a sword belt around the waist of the new earl, emphasizing the fact that the earl's rights came from him.

Earls still held influence and as "companions of the king", were regarded as supporters of the king's power. They showed that power for the first time in 1327 when they deposed Edward II. They would later do the same with other kings they disapproved of. Still, the number of earls remained the same until 1337  when Edward III declared that he intended to create six new earldoms. A loose connection between earls and shires remained for a long time after authority had moved over to the sheriffs. An official defining characteristic of an earl still consisted of the receipt of the "third penny", one-third of the revenues of justice of a shire, that later became a fixed sum. Thus every earl had an association with some shire, and very often a new creation of an earldom would take place in favour of the county where the new earl already had large estates and local influence.

Also, due to the association of earls and shires, the medieval practice could remain somewhat loose regarding the precise name used: no confusion could arise by calling someone earl of a shire, earl of the county town of the shire, or earl of some other prominent place in the shire; these all implied the same. So there were the "earl of Shrewsbury" (Shropshire), "earl of Arundel", "earl of Chichester" (Sussex), "earl of Winchester" (Hampshire), etc. In a few cases the earl was traditionally addressed by his family name, e.g. the "earl Warenne"(in this case the practice may have arisen because these earls had little or no property in Surrey, their official county). Thus an earl did not always have an intimate association with "his" county. Another example comes from the earls of Oxford, whose property largely lay in Essex. They became earls of Oxford because earls of Essex and of the other nearby shires already existed. Eventually the connection between an earl and a shire disappeared, so that in the present day a number of earldoms take their names from towns, mountains, or simply surnames. Nevertheless, some consider that the earldoms named after counties (or county towns) retain more prestige.

John-III-Earl-of-Bridgewate.jpg

List of the 317 Earldoms within the British Peerage system

CreatedTitle, order of succession, name, etc.Heir
1606SAbercorn (14th), held by the Duke of Abercorn 
1682SAberdeen (13th), held by the Marquess of Aberdeen & Temair 
1784GBAbergavenny (10th), held by the Marquess of AbergavennyDavid Michael Ralph Nevill, b. 1941
1682EAbingdon (9th), held by the Earl of Lindsey 
1660SAboyne (9th), held by the Marquess of Huntly 
1776GBAilesbury (9th), held by the Marquess of Ailesbury 
1771IAltamont (13th), held by the Marquess of Sligo 
1639SAirlie (8th), David George Coke Patrick Ogilvy, b. 1926, s. 1968, m.Lord Ogilvy, b. 1958
1696EAlbemarle (10th), Rufus Arnold Alexis Keppel, b. 1965, s. 1979Viscount Bury, b. 2003
1952UK*Alexander of Tunis (2nd), Shane William Desmond Alexander, b. 1935, s. 1969, m.Hon Brian James Alexander, b. 1939
1633SAncram (15th), held by the Marquess of Lothian 
1389SAngus (22nd), held by the Duke of Hamilton 
1662SAnnandale and Hartfell (11th), Patrick Andrew Wentworth Hope Johnstone, b. 1941, claim established 1985, m.Lord Johnstone, b. 1971
1789I*Annesley (11th), Philip Harrison Annesley, b. 1927, s. 2001, m.Hon Michael Robert Annesley, b. 1933
1785IAntrim (9th), Alexander Randal Mark McDonnell, b. 1935, s. 1977, m.Viscount Dunluce, b. 1967
1457SArgyll (22nd), held by the Duke of Argyll 
1762IArran (9th), Arthur Desmond Colquhoun Gore, b. 1938, s. 1983, m.Paul Annesley Gore, b. 1921
1643SArran & Cambridge (15th), held by the Duke of Hamilton 
1139EArundel (36th/29th), held by the Duke of Norfolk 
1629SAtholl (14th), held by the Duke of Atholl 
1955UK*Attlee (3rd), John Richard Attlee, b. 1956, s. 1991, m.None
1714GBAylesford (12th), Charles Heneage Finch-Knightley, b. 1947, s. 2008, m.Lord Guernsey, b. 1985

1651SBalcarres (12th), held by the Earl of Crawford 
1937UK*Baldwin of Bewdley (4th), Edward Alfred Alexander Baldwin, b. 1938, s. 1976, m.Viscount Corvedale, b. 1973
1922UKBalfour (5th), Roderick Francis Arthur Balfour, b. 1948, s. 2003, m.Charles George Yule Balfour, b. 1951
1772GB*Bathurst (8th), Henry Allen John Bathurst, b. 1927, s. 1943, m.Lord Apsley, b. 1961
1919UK*Beatty (3rd), David Beatty, b. 1946, s. 1972, m.Viscount Borodale, b. 1973
1786IBective (7th), held by the Marquess of Headfort 
1550EBedford (19th), held by the Duke of Bedford 
1791IBelfast (7th), held by the Marquess of Donegall 
1797I*Belmore (8th), John Armar Lowry-Corry, b. 1951, s. 1960, m.Viscount Corry, b. 1985
1626EBerkshire (14th), held by the Earl of Suffolk 
1739IBessborough (12th), Miles Fitzhugh Longfield Ponsonby, b. 1941, s. 2002, m.Viscount Duncannon, b. 1974
1790GBBeverley (9th), held by the Duke of Northumberland 
1815UKBradford (7th), Richard Thomas Orlando Bridgeman, b. 1947, s. 1981, m.Viscount Newport, b. 1980
1812UKBrecknock (6th), held by the Marquess Camden 
1714GBBristol (12th), held by the Marquess of Bristol 
1746GBBrooke (9th), held by the Earl of Warwick 
1821UK*Bruce (8th), held by the Marquess of Ailesbury 
1619SBuccleuch (12th), held by the Duke of Buccleuch 
1469SBuchan (17th), Malcolm Henry Erskine, b. 1930, s. 1984, m.Lord Cardross, b. 1960
1746GB*Buckinghamshire (10th), George Miles Hobart-Hampden, b. 1944, s. 1983, m.Sir John Vere Hobart, 4th Bt., b. 1945
1676EBurford (14th), held by the Duke of St Albans 
1703SBute (10th), held by the Marquess of Bute 

1800GB*Cadogan (8th), Charles Gerald John Cadogan, b. 1937, s. 1997, m.Viscount Chelsea, b. 1966
1878UK*Cairns (6th), Simon Dallas Cairns, b. 1939, s. 1989, m.Viscount Garmoyle, b. 1965
1455SCaithness (20th), Malcolm Ian Sinclair, b. 1948, s. 1965, m.Lord Berriedale, b. 1981
1800ICaledon (7th), Nicholas James Alexander, b. 1955, s. 1980, m.Viscount Alexander, b. 1990
1786GB*Camden (7th), held by the Marquess Camden 
1701SCampbell & Cowall (13th), held by the Duke of Argyll 
1661ECardigan (14th), held by the Marquess of Ailesbury 
1661ECarlisle (13th), George William Beaumont Howard, b. 1949, s. 1994Hon Philip Charles Wentworth Howard, b. 1963
1793GBCarnarvon (8th), George Reginald Oliver Molyneux Herbert, b. 1956, s. 2001, m.Lord Porchester, b. 1992
1748ICarrick (10th), David James Theobald Somerset Butler, b. 1953, s. 1992, m.Viscount Ikerrin, b. 1975
1509SCassillis (19th), held by the Marquess of Ailsa 
1800I*Castle Stewart (8th), Arthur Patrick Avondale Stuart, b. 1928, s. 1961, m.Viscount Stuart, b. 1953
1814UK*Cathcart (7th), Charles Alan Cathcart, b. 1952, s. 1999, m.Lord Greenock, b. 1986
1647ICavan (13th), Roger Cavan Lambart, b. 1944, s. 1988None
1827UK*Cawdor (7th), Colin Robert Vaughan Campbell, b. 1962, s. 1993, m.Viscount Emlyn, b. 1998
1801UKChichester (9th), John Nicholas Pelham, b. 1944, s. 1944, m.Richard Anthony Henry Pelham, b. 1952
1706ECholmondeley (10th), held by the Marquess of Cholmondeley 
1803IClancarty (9th), Nicholas Power Richard Le Poer Trench, b. 1952, s. 1995None
1800IClanricarde (9th), held by the Marquess of Sligo 
1776IClanwilliam (7th), John Herbert Meade, b. 1919, s. 1989, m.Lord Gillford, b. 1960
1776GBClarendon (8th), George Edward Laurence Villiers, b. 1976, s. 2009, m.Lord Hyde, b. 2008
1812UK*Compton (7th), held by the Marquess of Northampton 
1797I*Conyngham (8th), held by the Marquess Conyngham 
1620ICork (15th), John Richard Boyle, b. 1945, s. 2003, m.Viscount Dungarvan, b. 1978
1850UKCottenham (9th), Mark John Henry Pepys, b. 1983, s. 2000Hon Sam Richard Pepys, b. 1986
1762ICourtown (9th), James Patrick Montagu Burgoyne Winthrop Stopford, b. 1954, s. 1975, m.Viscount Stopford, b. 1988
1697ECoventry (13th), George William Coventry, b. 1939, s. 2004, m.David Duncan Sherwood Coventry, b. 1973
1857UK*Cowley (7th), Garret Graham Wellesley, b. 1934, s. 1975, m.Viscount Dangan, b. 1965
1892UKCranbrook (5th), Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy, b. 1933, s. 1978, m.Lord Medway, b. 1968
1801UKCraven (9th), Benjamin Robert Joseph Craven, b. 1989, s. 1990Rupert José Evelyn Craven, b. 1926
1398SCrawford (29th), Robert Alexander Lindsay, b. 1927, s. 1975, m.Lord Balniel, b. 1958
1861UKCromartie (5th), John Ruaridh Blunt Grant Mackenzie, b. 1948, s. 1989, m.Viscount Tarbat, b. 1987
1901UKCromer (4th), Evelyn Rowland Esmond Baring, b. 1946, s. 1991, m.Viscount Errington, b. 1994

1633SDalhousie (17th), James Hubert Ramsay, b. 1948, s. 1999, m.Lord Ramsay, b. 1981
1663SDalkeith (9th), held by the Duke of Buccleuch 
1675SDarnley (10th), held by the Duke of Richmond 
1725IDarnley (11th), Adam Ivo Stuart Bligh, b. 1941, s. 1980, m.Lord Clifton, b. 1968
1711GBDartmouth (10th), William Legge, b. 1949, s. 1997Hon Rupert Legge, b. 1951
1761GB*De La Warr (11th), William Herbrand Sackville, b. 1948, s. 1988, m.Lord Buckhurst, b. 1979
1622EDenbigh (12th), Alexander Stephen Rudolph Feilding, b. 1970, s. 1995, m.Viscount Feilding, b. 2005
1485EDerby (19th), Edward Richard William Stanley, b. 1962, s. 1994, m.Lord Stanley, b. 1998
1622IDesmond (11th), held by the Earl of Denbigh 
1553EDevon (18th), Hugh Rupert Courtenay, b. 1942, s. 1998, m.Lord Courtenay, b. 1975
1618EDevonshire (14th), held by the Duke of Devonshire 
1663EDoncaster (9th), held by the Duke of Buccleuch 
1647IDonegall (11th), held by the Marquess of Donegall 
1800IDonoughmore (8th), Richard Michael John Hely-Hutchinson, b. 1927, s. 1981, m.Viscount Suirdale, b. 1952
1661IDrogheda (12th), Henry Dermot Ponsonby Moore, b. 1937, s. 1989, m.Viscount Moore, b. 1983
1682SDrumlanrig & Sanquhar (11th), held by the Duke of Buccleuch 
1837UKDucie (7th), David Leslie Moreton, b. 1951, s. 1991, m.Lord Moreton, b. 1981
1860UKDudley (4th), William Humble David Ward, b. 1920, s. 1969, m.Viscount Ednam, b. 1947
1633SDumfries (12th), held by the Marquess of Bute 
1660SDundee (12th), Alexander Henry Scrymgeour, b. 1949, s. 1983, m.Lord Scrymgeour, b. 1982
1669SDundonald (15th), Iain Alexander Douglas Blair Cochrane, b. 1961, s. 1986, m.Lord Cochrane, b. 1991
1686SDunmore (12th), Malcolm Kenneth Murray, b. 1946, s. 1995, m.Hon Geoffrey Charles Murray, b. 1949
1822UKDunraven and Mount Earl (7th), Thady Windham Thomas Wyndham-Quin, b. 1939, s. 1965, m.None
1833UKDurham (7th), Edward Richard Lambton, b. 1961, s. 2006, m.Viscount Lambton, b. 1985

1837UKEffingham (7th), David Mowbray Algernon Howard, b. 1939, s. 1996, m.Lord Howard of Effingham, b. 1971
1507SEglinton (18th), Archibald George Montgomerie, b. 1939, s. 1966, m.Lord Montgomerie, b. 1966
1733IEgmont (12th), Thomas Frederick Gerald Perceval, b. 1934, s. 2001, m.None
1821UKEldon (5th), John Joseph Nicholas Scott, b. 1937, s. 1976, m.Viscount Encombe, b. 1962
1633SElgin (11th), Andrew Douglas Alexander Thomas Bruce, b. 1924, s. 1968, m.Lord Bruce, b. 1961
1846UKEllesmere (6th), held by the Duke of Sutherland 
1794IEly (8th), held by the Marquess of Ely 
1789IEnniskillen (7th), Andrew John Galbraith Cole, b. 1942, s. 1989, m.Arthur Gerald Cole, b. 1920
1789I*Erne (6th), Henry George Victor John Crichton, b. 1937, s. 1940, m.Viscount Crichton, b. 1971
1452SErroll (24th), Merlin Sereld Victor Gilbert Hay, b. 1948, s. 1978, m.Lord Hay, b. 1984
1661EEssex (11th), (Frederick) Paul de Vere Capell, b. 1944, s. 2005William Jennings Capell, b. 1952
1672EEuston (11th), held by the Duke of Grafton 
1605EExeter (17th), held by the Marquess of Exeter 

1711GB*Ferrers (13th), Robert Washington Shirley, b. 1929, s. 1954, m.Viscount Tamworth, b. 1952
1789GB*Fortescue (8th), Charles Hugh Richard Fortescue, b. 1951, s. 1993, m.John Andrew Francis Fortescue, b. 1955

1841UKGainsborough (5th), Anthony Gerard Edward Noel, b. 1923, s. 1927, m.Viscount Campden, b. 1950
1623SGalloway (13th), Randolph Keith Reginald Stewart, b. 1928, s. 1978, m.Andrew Clyde Stewart, b. 1949
1694SGifford (13th), held by the Marquess of Tweeddale 
1703SGlasgow (10th), Patrick Robin Archibald Boyle, b. 1939, s. 1984, m.Viscount of Kelburn, b. 1978
1806IGosford (7th), Charles David Nicholas Alexander John Sparrow Acheson, b. 1942, s. 1966, m.Hon Patrick Bernard Victor Montagu Acheson, b. 1915
1746GB*Gower (9th), held by the Duke of Sutherland 
1845UKGowrie (2nd), Alexander Patric Greysteil Hore-Ruthven, b. 1939, s. 1955, m.Viscount Ruthven of Canberra, b. 1964
1722GB*Graham (8th), held by the Duke of Montrose 
1684IGranard (10th), Peter Arthur Edward Hastings Forbes, b. 1957, s. 1992, m.Viscount Forbes, b. 1981
1833UK*Granville (6th), Granville George Fergus Leveson-Gower, b. 1959, s. 1996, m.Lord Leveson, b. 1999
1806UK*Grey (6th), Richard Fleming George Charles Grey, b. 1939, s. 1963, m.Hon Philip Kent Grey, b. 1940
1784GB*Grosvenor (9th), held by the Duke of Westminster 
1752GBGuilford (10th), Piers Edward Brownlow North, b. 1971, s. 1999, m.Lord North, b. 2002

1619SHaddington (13th), John George Baillie-Hamilton, b. 1941, s. 1986, m.Lord Binning, b. 1985
1916UKHaddo (7th), held by the Marquess of Aberdeen & Temair 
1919UK*Haig (3rd), Alexander Douglas Derrick Haig, b. 1961, s. 2009,None
1944UKHalifax (3rd), Charles Edward Peter Neil Wood, b. 1944, s. 1980, m.Lord Irwin, b. 1977
1898UKHalsbury (4th), Adam Edward Giffard, b. 1934, s. 2000, m.None
1754GBHardwicke (10th), Joseph Philip Sebastian Yorke, b. 1971, s. 1974Charles Edward Yorke, b. 1951
1812UKHarewood (7th), George Henry Hubert Lascelles, b. 1923, s. 1947, m.Viscount Lascelles, b. 1950
1742GBHarrington (12th), Charles Henry Leicester Stanhope, b. 1945, s. 2009, m.Viscount Petersham, b. 1967
1809UKHarrowby (8th), (Dudley Adrian) Conroy Ryder, b. 1951, s. 2007, m.Viscount Sandon, b. 1981
1750GBHertford (9th), held by the Marquess of Hertford 
1751IHillsborough (9th), held by the Marquess of Downshire 
1772GBHillsborough (9th), held by the Marquess of Downshire 
1605SHome (15th), David Alexander Cospatrick Douglas-Home, b. 1943, s. 1995, m.Lord Dunglass, b. 1987
1703SHopetoun (10th), held by the Marquess of Linlithgow 
1821UK*Howe (7th), Frederick Richard Penn Curzon, b. 1951, s. 1984, m.Vsicount Curzon, b. 1994
1529EHuntingdon (16th), William Edward Robin Hood Hastings Bass, b. 1948, s. 1990, m.Hon Simon Aubrey Robin Hood Hastings Bass, b. 1950

1885UKIddesleigh (5th), John Stafford Nothcote, b. 1957, s. 2004, m.Viscount St Cyres, b. 1985
1756GBIlchester (10th), Robin Maurice Fox-Strangways, b. 1942, s. 2006, m.Lord Strangways, b. 1972
1929UKInchcape (4th), Peter Lyle Mackay, b. 1943, s. 1994, m.Viscount Glenapp, b. 1979
1837UK*Innes (5th), held by the Duke of Roxburghe 
1986UKInverness (1st), held by the Duke of York 
1919UKIveagh (4th), Arthur Edward Rory Guinness, b. 1969, s. 1992Viscount Elveden, b. 2003

1925UK*Jellicoe (3rd), Patrick John Bernard Jellicoe, b. 1950, s. 2007, m.Viscount Brocas, b. 1970
1826UK*Jermyn (8th), held by the Marquess of Bristol 
1697EJersey (10th), George Francis William Child-Villiers, b. 1976, s. 1998, m.Hon Jamie Charles Child-Villiers, b. 1994

1616SKellie (16th), held by the Earl of Mar (cr. 1565) 
1707SKelso (10th), held by the Duke of Roxburghe 
1722IKerry (10th), held by the Marquess of Lansdowne 
1316IKildare (27th), held by the Duke of Leinster 
1822IKilmorey (6th), Richard Francis Needham, b. 1942, s. 1977, m.Viscount Newry and Morne, b. 1966
1866UKKimberley (5th), John Armine Wodehouse, b. 1951, s. 2002, m.Lord Wodehouse, b. 1978
1644SKincardine (11th), held by the Duke of Montrose 
1647SKincardine (15th), held by the Earl of Elgin 
1768IKingston (12th), Robert Charles Henry King-Tenison, b. 1969, s. 2002, m.Viscount Kingsborough, b. 2000
1633SKinnoull (15th), (Arthur) William George Patrick Hay, b. 1935, s. 1938, m.Viscount Dupplin, b. 1962
1876UKKinrara (5th), held by the Duke of Richmond 
1677SKintore (14th), James William Falconer Keith, b. 1976, s. 2004Hon Alexander David Keith, b. 1946
1914UK*Kitchener of Khartoum and of Broome (3rd), Henry Herbert Kitchener, b. 1919, s. 1937None

1639SLanark (14th), held by the Duke of Hamilton 
1624SLauderdale (18th), Ian Maitland, b. 1937, s. 2008, m.Viscount Maitland, b. 1965
1837UKLeicester (7th), Edward Douglas Coke, b. 1936, s. 1994, m.Viscount Coke, b. 1965
1641SLeven (16th), Alexander Robert Leslie Melville, b. 1924, s. 1947, m.Lord Balgonie, b. 1954
1876UKLewes (5th), held by the Marquess of Abergavenny 
1831UKLichfield (6th), Thomas William Robert Hugh Anson, b. 1976, s. 2005George Rupert Anson, b. 1960
1803ILimerick (7th), Edmund Christopher Pery, b. 1963, s. 2003, m.Viscount Glentworth, b. 1991
1572ELincoln (19th), Robert Edward Fiennes-Clinton, b. 1972, s. 2001, m.Hon William Roy Fiennes-Clinton, b. 1980
1633SLindsay (16th), James Randolph Lindesay-Bethune, b. 1955, s. 1989, m.Viscount Garnock, b. 1990
1626ELindsey (14th), Richard Henry Rupert Bertie, b. 1931, s. 1963, m.Lord Norreys, b. 1958
1776ILisburne (8th), John David Malet Vaughan, b. 1918, s. 1965, m.Viscount Vaughan, b. 1945
1822IListowel (6th), Michael Francis Hare, b. 1964, s. 1997, m.Hon Timothy Patrick Hare, b. 1966
1905UKLiverpool (5th), Edward Peter Bertram Savile Foljambe, b. 1944, s. 1969, m.Viscount Hawkesbury, b. 1972
1945UKLloyd George of Dwyfor (3rd), Owen Lloyd George, b. 1924, s. 1968, m.Viscount Gwynedd, b. 1951
1796ILondonderry (9th), held by the Marquess of Londonderry 
1785ILongford (8th), Thomas Frank Dermot Pakenham, b. 1933, s. 1971, m.Lord Silchester, b. 1970
1807UKLonsdale (8th), Hugh Clayton Lowther, b. 1949, s. 2006, m.Hon William James Lowther, b. 1957
1631SLothian (14th), held by the Marquess of Lothian 
1633SLoudoun (14th), Michael Edward Abney-Hastings, b. 1942, s. 2002, m.Lord Mauchline, b. 1974
1838UKLovelace (5th), Peter Axel William Locke King, b. 1951, s. 1964, m.None
1795ILucan (7th), Richard John Bingham, b. 1934, s. 1964, m.Lord Bingham, b. 1967
1880UKLytton (5th), John Peter Michael Scawen Lytton, b. 1950, s. 1985, m.Viscount Knebworth, b. 1989

1721GBMacclesfield (9th), Richard Timothy George Mansfield Parker, b. 1943, s. 1992, m.Hon (Jonathan) David Geoffrey Parker, b. 1945
1900UKMacduff (3rd), held by the Duke of Fife 
1800GBMalmesbury (7th), James Carleton Harris, b. 1946, s. 2000, m.Viscount FitzHarris, b. 1970
1626EManchester (16th), held by the Duke of Manchester 
1776GBMansfield (8th), William David Mungo James Murray, b. 1930, s. 1971, m.Viscount Stormont, b. 1956
1792GBMansfield (8th), held by the Earl of Mansfield 
1565SMar (14th), James Thorne Erskine, b. 1949, s. 1993, m.Hon Alexander David Erskine, b. 1952
1675EMarch (10th), held by the Duke of Richmond 
1697SMarch (8th), held by the Earl of Wemyss 
1689EMarlborough (11th), held by the Duke of Marlborough 
1785IMayo (11th), Charles Diarmuidh John Bourke, b. 1953, s. 2006Lord Naas, b. 1985
1627IMeath (15th), John Anthony Brabazon, b. 1941, s. 1998, m.Lord Ardee, b. 1977
1917UKMedina (4th), held by the Marquess of Milford Haven 
1690SMelville (13th), held by the Earl of Leven 
1947UKMerioneth (1st), held by the Duke of Edinburgh 
1766IMexborough (8th), John Christopher George Savile, b. 1931, s. 1980, m.Viscount Pollington, b. 1959
1911UKMidlothian (3rd), held by the Earl of Rosebery 
1813UKMinto (7th), (Gilbert) Timothy George Lariston Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, b. 1953, s. 2005, m.Viscount Melgund, b. 1984
1605EMontgomery (15th), held by the Earl of Pembroke 
1503SMontrose (15th), held by the Duke of Montrose 
1562SMoray (20th), Douglas John Moray Stuart, b. 1928, s. 1974, m.Lord Doune, b. 1966
1815UKMorley (6th), John St Aubyn Parker, b. 1923, s. 1962, m.Viscount Boringdon, b. 1956
1760IMornington (12th), held by the Duke of Wellington 
1458SMorton (21st), John Charles Sholto Douglas, b. 1927, s. 1976, m.Lord Aberdour, b. 1952
1816IMount Charles (8th), held by the Marquess Conyngham 
1789GBMount Edgcumbe (8th), Robert Charles Edgcumbe, b. 1939, s. 1962Piers Valletot Edgcumbe, b. 1946
1812UKMulgrave (6th), held by the Marquess of Normanby 

1805UK*Nelson (10th), Simon John Horatio Nelson, b. 1971, s. 2009, m.Hon Edward James Horatio Nelson, b. 1994
1660SNewburgh (12th), Don Filippo Giambattista Camillo Francesco Aldo Maria Rospigliosi, b. 1942, s. 1986, m.Princess Donna Benedetta Francesca Maria Rospigliosi, b. 1974
1827INorbury (7th), Richard James Graham-Toler, b. 1967, s. 2000None
1644ENorfolk (14th), held by the Duke of Norfolk 
1806INormanton (6th), Shaun James Christian Welbore Ellis Agar, b. 1945, s. 1967, m.Viscount Somerton, b. 1982
1618ENorthampton (15th), held by the Marquess of Northampton 
1647SNorthesk (14th), David John MacRae Carnegie, b. 1954, s. 1994, m.Patrick Charles Carnegy, b. 1940
1749GBNorthumberland (13th), held by the Duke of Northumberland 
1681ENottingham (12th), held by the Earl of Winchilsea 

1761IOffaly (8th), held by the Duke of Leinster 
1801UKOnslow (7th), Michael William Coplestone Dillon Onslow, b. 1938, s. 1971, m.Viscount Cranley, b. 1967
1696SOrkney (9th), Oliver Peter St John, b. 1938, s. 1998, m.Viscount Kirkwall, b. 1969
1660IOrrery (15th), held by the Earl of Cork 
1925UKOxford and Asquith (2nd), Julian Edward George Asquith, b. 1916, s. 1928, m.Viscount Asquith, b. 1952

1929UK*Peel (3rd), William James Robert Peel, b. 1947, s. 1969, m.Viscount Clanfield, b. 1976
1551EPembroke (18th), William Alexander Sidney Herbert, b. 1978, s. 2003The Earl of Carnarvon, b. 1956
1766GB*Percy (12th), held by the Duke of Northumberland 
1605SPerth (9th), John Eric Drummond, b. 1935, s. 2002, m.Viscount Strathallan, b. 1965
1905UKPlymouth (3rd), Other Robert Ivor Windsor-Clive, b. 1923, s. 1943, m.Viscount Windsor, b. 1951
1785IPortarlington (7th), George Lionel Yuill Seymour Dawson-Damer, b. 1938, s. 1959, m.Viscount Carlow, b. 1965
1689EPortland (12th), Count Timothy Charles Robert Noel Bentinck, b. 1953, s. 1997, m.Viscount Woodstock, b. 1984
1743GBPortsmouth (10th), Quentin Gerard Carew Wallop, b. 1954, s. 1984, m.Viscount Lymington, b. 1981
1804UKPowis (8th), John George Herbert, b. 1952, s. 1993, m.Viscount Clive, b. 1979

1633SQueensberry (14th), held by the Marquess of Queensberry 

1765GBRadnor (9th), William Pleydell-Bouverie, b. 1955, s. 2008, m.Viscount Folkestone, b. 1999
1831IRanfurly (7th), Gerald Françoys Needham Knox, b. 1929, s. 1988, m.Edward J Knox, b. 1957
1917UKReading (4th), held by the Marquess of Reading 
1815UKRocksavage (7th), held by the Marquess of Cholmondeley 
1771IRoden (10th), Robert John Jocelyn, b. 1938, s. 1993, m.Viscount Jocelyn, b. 1989
1801UKRomney (8th), Julian Charles Marsham, b. 1948, s. 2004, m.Viscount Marsham, b. 1977
1892UKRonaldshay (4th), held by the Marquess of Zetland 
1703SRosebery (7th), Neil Archibald Primrose, b. 1929, s. 1974, m.Lord Dalmeny, b. 1967
1806IRosse (7th), William Clere Leonard Brendan Parsons, b. 1936, s. 1979, m.Lord Oxmantown, b. 1969
1801UKRosslyn (7th), Peter St Clair-Erskine, b. 1958, s. 1977, m.Lord Loughborough, b. 1986
1457SRothes (22nd), James Malcolm David Leslie, b. 1958, s. 2005Master of Rothes, b. 1962
1616SRoxburghe (14th), held by the Duke of Roxburghe 
1861UK*Russell (6th), Nicholas Lyulph Russell, b. 1968, s. 2004Hon John Francis Russell, b. 1971
1525ERutland (19th), held by the Duke of Rutland 

1915UKSt Aldwyn (3rd), Michael Henry Hicks Beach, b. 1950, s. 1992, m.Hon David Seymour Hicks Beach, b. 1955
1934UKSt Andrews (2nd), held by the Duke of Kent 
1815UKSt Germans (10th), Peregrine Nicholas Eliot, b. 1941, s. 1988Lord Eliot, b. 1966
1605ESalisbury (13th), held by the Marquess of Salisbury 
1660ESandwich (11th), John Edward Hollister Montagu, b. 1943, s. 1995, m.Viscount Hinchinbrooke, b. 1969
1690EScarbrough (13th), Richard Osbert Lumley, b. 1973, s. 2004Hon Thomas Henry Lumley, b. 1980
1701SSeafield (13th), Ian Derek Francis Ogilvie-Grant, b. 1939, s. 1969, m.Viscount Reidhaven, b. 1963
1882UKSelborne (4th), John Roundell Palmer, b. 1940, s. 1971, m.Viscount Wolmer, b. 1971
1646SSelkirk (Disclaimed for life 1994), Baron Selkirk of Douglas, b. 1942, succession decided in his favour 1996, m.Lord Daer, b. 1978
1672EShaftesbury (12th), Nicholas Edmund Anthony Ashley-Cooper, b. 1979, s. 2005None
1756IShannon (9th), Richard Bentinck Boyle, b. 1924, s. 1963Viscount Boyle, b. 1960
1753IShelburne (10th), held by the Marquess of Lansdowne 
1442EShrewsbury (22nd), Charles Henry John Benedict Crofton Chetwynd Chetwynd-Talbot, b. 1952, s. 1980, m.Viscount Ingestre, b. 1978
1961UKSnowdon (1st), Antony Charles Robert Armstrong-Jones, b. 1930, m.Viscount Linley, b. 1961
1633SSouthesk (9th), held by the Duke of Fife 
1765GB*Spencer (9th), Charles Edward Maurice Spencer, b. 1964, s. 1992, m.Viscount Althorp, b. 1994
1703SStair (14th), John David James Dalrymple, b. 1961, s. 1996Hon David Hew Dalrymple, b. 1963
1984UKStockton (2nd), Alexander Daniel Alan Macmillan, b. 1943, s. 1986, m.Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden, b. 1974
1821UKStradbroke (6th), Robert Keith Rous, b. 1937, s. 1983, m.Viscount Dunwich, b. 1961
1847UKStrafford (8th), Thomas Edmund Byng, b. 1936, s. 1984, m.Viscount Enfield, b. 1964
1606SStrathmore & Kinghorne (18th), Michael Fergus Bowes-Lyon, b. 1957, s. 1987, m.Lord Glamis, b. 1986
1937UKStrathmore & Kinghorne (5th), held by the Earl of Strathmore & Kinghorne 
1703SStrathtay & Strathardle (11th), held by the Duke of Atholl 
1603ESuffolk (21st), Michael John James George Robert Howard, b. 1935, s. 1941, m.Viscount Andover, b. 1974
1643ESunderland (13th), held by the Duke of Marlborough 
1483ESurrey (18th), held by the Duke of Norfolk 
1955UKSwinton (2nd), David Yarburgh Cunliffe-Lister, b. 1937, s. 1972, m.Hon Nicholas John Cunliffe-Lister, b. 1939

1714GBTankerville (10th), Peter Grey Bennet, b. 1956, s. 1980Adrian George Bennet, b. 1958
1822UK*Temple of Stowe (8th), (Walter) Grenville Algernon Temple-Gore-Langton, b. 1924, s. 1988, m.Lord Langton, b. 1955
1606STullibardine (16th), held by the Duke of Atholl 
1646STweeddale (14th), held by the Marquess of Tweeddale 
1746ITyrone (9th), held by the Marquess of Waterford 

1928UKUlster (2nd), held by the Duke of Gloucester 
1784GBUxbridge (8th), held by the Marquess of Anglesey 

1823UK*Vane (6th), held by the Marquess of Londonderry 
1815UKVerulam (7th), John Duncan Grimston, b. 1951, s. 1973, m.Viscount Grimston, b. 1978

1729GB*Waldegrave (13th), James Sherbrooke Waldegrave, b. 1940, s. 1995, m.Viscount Chewton, b. 1986
1759GBWarwick (9th), Guy David Greville, b. 1957, s. 1996, m.Lord Brooke, b. 1982
1446IWaterford (22nd), held by the Earl of Shrewsbury 
1812UKWellington (8th), held by the Duke of Wellington 
1633SWemyss (11th), James Donald Charteris, b. 1948, s. 2008, m.Lord Neidpath, b. 1984
1999UKWessex (1st), HRH Prince Edward Antony Richard Louis, b. 1964, m.None
1621IWestmeath (13th), William Anthony Nugent, b. 1928, s. 1971, m.Lord Delvin, b. 1965
1624EWestmorland (16th), Anthony David Francis Henry Fane, b. 1951, s. 1993, m.Hon Harry St Clair Fane, b. 1953
1876UKWharncliffe (5th), Richard Alan Montagu-Stuart-Wortley, b. 1953, s. 1987, m.Viscount Carlton, b. 1980
1801UKWilton (8th), Francis Egerton Grosvenor, b. 1934, s. 1999, m.Viscount Grey de Wilton, b. 1959
1550EWiltshire (18th), held by the Marquess of Winchester 
1628EWinchilsea (17th), Daniel James Hatfield Finch-Hatton, b. 1967, s. 1999, m.Viscount Maidstone, b. 1998
1796GBWindsor (7th), held by the Marquess of Bute 
1766I*Winterton (8th), (Donald) David Turnour, b. 1943, s. 1991, m.Robert Charles Turnour, b. 1950
1859UKWinton (6th), held by the Earl of Eglinton 
1956UKWoolton (3rd), Simon Frederick Marquis, b. 1958, s. 1969, m.None
1514EWorcester (17th), held by the Duke of Beaufort 
1784GB*Wycombe (9th), held by the Marquess of Lansdowne 

1817UKYarborough (8th), Charles John Pelham, b. 1963, s. 1991, m.Lord Worsley, b. 1990
1793GBYarmouth (9th), held by the Marquess of Hertford 

1838UKZetland (6th), held by the Marquess of Zetland 

CreatedTitle, order of succession, name, etc.  
Heir
1643SDysart (12th in line), Katherine Grant of Rothiemurchus, b. 1918, s. 2003Lord Huntingtower, b. 1946
c.1115SMar (31st in line), Margaret of Mar, b. 1940, s. 1975, m.Mistress of Mar, b. 1963
1947UK*Mountbatten of Burma (2nd in line), Patricia Edwina Victoria Knatchbull, b. 1924, s. 1979, m.8th Baron Brabourne, b. 1947
c.1235SSutherland (24th in line), Elizabeth Milicent Sutherland, b. 1921, s. 1963, m.Lord Strathnaver, b. 1947 

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