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http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/Emblem_of_Vatican_City.svg/200px-Emblem_of_Vatican_City.svg.png
  Holy Vatican State
Stato della Città del Vaticano
 
Vatican City or Vatican City State, in Italian officially Stato della Città del Vaticano, is a landlocked sovereign city-state whose territory consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome, Italy. It has an area of approximately 44 hectares (110 acres), and a population of just over 800. This makes Vatican City the smallest independent state in the world by both area and population.
 
File:Vatican StPeter Square.jpg 
 
Vatican City was established in 1929 by the Lateran Treaty, signed by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri, on behalf of Pope Pius XI and by Prime Minister and Head of Government Benito Mussolini on behalf of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy. Vatican City State is distinct from the Holy See, which dates back to early Christianity and is the main episcopal see of 1.2 billion Latin and Eastern Catholic adherents around the globe. Ordinances of Vatican City are published in Italian; official documents of the Holy See are issued mainly in Latin. The two entities have distinct passports: the Holy See, not being a country, issues only diplomatic and service passports, whereas Vatican City State issues normal passports. In each case very few passports are issued.
 
File:Vatican panorama from St. Peters Basilica.jpg 

The Lateran Treaty in 1929, which brought the city-state into existence, spoke of it as a new creation (Preamble and Article III), not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States (756-1870) that had previously encompassed much of central Italy. Most of this territory was absorbed into the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, and the final portion, namely the city of Rome with Lazio, ten years later, in 1870. Vatican City is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state, ruled by the Bishop of Rome-the Pope. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergymen of various national origins. It is the sovereign territory of the Holy See (Sancta Sedes) and the location of the Pope's residence, referred to as the Apostolic Palace.

File:View from Stpeters.jpg

The Popes have generally resided in the area that in 1929 became Vatican City since the return from Avignon in 1377, but have also at times resided in the Quirinal Palace in Rome and elsewhere. Previously, they resided in the Lateran Palace on the Caelian Hill on the far side of Rome from the Vatican. Emperor Constantine gave this site to Pope Miltiades in 313. The signing of the agreements that established the new state took place in the latter building, giving rise to the name of Lateran Pacts, by which they are known.

Vatican Territory

The name "Vatican" predates Christianity and comes from the Latin Mons Vaticanus, meaning Vatican Mount. The territory of Vatican City is part of the Mons Vaticanus, and of the adjacent former Vatican Fields. It is in this territory that St. Peter's Basilica, the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel, and museums were built, along with various other buildings. The area was part of the Roman rione of Borgo until 1929. Being separated from the city, on the west bank of the Tiber river, the area was an outcrop of the city that was protected by being included within the walls of Leo IV (847-55), and later expanded by the current fortification walls, built under Paul III (1534-49), Pius IV (1559-65) and Urban VIII (1623-44).

When the Lateran Treaty of 1929 that gave the state its form was being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory were influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclosed by this loop. For some tracts of the frontier, there was no wall, but the line of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small part of the frontier a modern wall was constructed. The territory includes St. Peter's Square, distinguished from the territory of Italy only by a white line along the limit of the square, where it touches Piazza Pio XII. St. Peter's Square is reached through the Via della Conciliazione which runs from close to the Tiber River to St. Peter's. This grand approach was constructed by Benito Mussolini after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty.

According to the Lateran Treaty, certain properties of the Holy See that are located in Italian territory, most notably Castel Gandolfo and the major basilicas, enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of foreign embassies. These properties, scattered all over Rome and Italy, house essential offices and institutions necessary to the character and mission of the Holy See. Castel Gandolfo and the named basilicas are patrolled internally by police agents of Vatican City State and not by Italian police. St. Peter's Square is ordinarily policed jointly by both.

Within the territory of Vatican City are the Vatican Gardens (Italian: Giardini Vaticani), which account for more than half of this territory. The gardens, established during the Renaissance and Baroque era, are decorated with fountains and sculptures. The gardens cover approximately 23 hectares (57 acres) which is most of the Vatican Hill. The highest point is 60 metres (200 ft) above mean sea level. Stone walls bound the area in the North, South and West. The gardens date back to medieval times when orchards and vineyards extended to the north of the Papal Apostolic Palace. In 1279 Pope Nicholas III (Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, 1277-1280) moved his residence back to the Vatican from the Lateran Palace and enclosed this area with walls. He planted an orchard (pomerium), a lawn (pratellum) and a garden (viridarium).

History

In this originally uninhabited area (the ager vaticanus) on the opposite side of the Tiber from the city of Rome, Agrippina the Elder (14 BC - 18 October AD 33) drained the hill and environs and built her gardens in the early 1st century AD. Emperor Caligula (31 August AD 12 - 24 January AD 41; r. 37-41) started construction of a circus (AD 40) that was later completed by Nero, the Circus Gaii et Neronis, usually called, simply, the Circus of Nero. In AD 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, when the northern army that brought Aulus Vitellius to power arrived in Rome, "a large proportion camped in the unhealthy districts of the Vatican, which resulted in many deaths among the common soldiery; and the Tiber being close by, the inability of the Gauls and Germans to bear the heat and the consequent greed with which they drank from the stream weakened their bodies, which were already an easy prey to disease".

The Vatican obelisk was originally taken by Caligula from Heliopolis, Egypt to decorate the spina of his circus and is thus its last visible remnant. This area became the site of martyrdom of many Christians after the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64. Ancient tradition holds that it was in this circus that Saint Peter was crucified upside-down. Opposite the circus was a cemetery separated by the Via Cornelia. Funeral monuments and mausoleums and small tombs as well as altars to pagan gods of all kinds of polytheistic religions were constructed lasting until before the construction of the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter's in the first half of the 4th century. Remains of this ancient necropolis were brought to light sporadically during renovations by various popes throughout the centuries increasing in frequency during the Renaissance until it was systematically excavated by orders of Pope Pius XII from 1939 to 1941.

In 326, the first church, the Constantinian basilica, was built over the site that early Roman Catholic apologists (from the first century on) as well as noted Italian archaeologists argue was the tomb of Saint Peter, buried in a common cemetery on the spot. From then on the area started to become more populated, but mostly only by dwelling houses connected with the activity of St. Peter's. A palace was constructed near the site of the basilica as early as the 5th century during the pontificate of Pope Symmachus (reigned 498-514). Popes in their secular role gradually came to govern neighbouring regions and, through the Papal States, ruled a large portion of the Italian peninsula for more than a thousand years until the mid 19th century, when all of the territory of the Papal States was seized by the newly created Kingdom of Italy. For much of this time the Vatican was not the habitual residence of the Popes, but rather the Lateran Palace, and in recent centuries, the Quirinal Palace, while the residence from 1309-77 was at Avignon in France.

Italian unification

In 1870, the Pope's holdings were left in an uncertain situation when Rome itself was annexed by the Piedmont-led forces which had united the rest of Italy, after a nominal resistance by the papal forces. Between 1861 and 1929 the status of the Pope was referred to as the "Roman Question". The successive Popes were undisturbed in their palace, and certain prerogatives recognized by the Law of Guarantees, including the right to send and receive ambassadors. But the Popes did not recognise the Italian king's right to rule in Rome, and they refused to leave the Vatican compound until the dispute was resolved in 1929. Other states continued to maintain international recognition of the Holy See as a sovereign entity.

In practice Italy made no attempt to interfere with the Holy See within the Vatican walls. However, they confiscated church property in many other places, including, perhaps most notably, the Quirinal Palace, formerly the pope's official residence. Pope Pius IX (1846-78), the last ruler of the Papal States, claimed that after Rome was annexed he was a "Prisoner in the Vatican".

Lateran treaties

This situation was resolved on 11 February 1929, when the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and the Kingdom of Italy. was signed by Prime Minister and Head of Government Benito Mussolini on behalf of King Victor Emmanuel III and by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri for Pope Pius XI. The treaty, which became effective on 7 June 1929, established the independent state of Vatican City and reaffirmed the special status of Roman Catholicism in Italy.

World War II

Vatican City officially pursued a policy of neutrality during World War II, under the leadership of Pope Pius XII. Although the city of Rome was occupied by Germany from 1943 and the Allies from 1944, Vatican City itself was not occupied. One of Pius XII's main diplomatic priorities was to prevent the bombing of Rome; so sensitive was the pontiff that he protested even the British air dropping of pamphlets over Rome, claiming that the few landing within the city-state violated the Vatican's neutrality. Before the American entry into the war, there was little impetus for such a bombing, as the British saw little strategic value in it.

After the American entry, the US opposed such a bombing, fearful of offending Catholic members of its military forces, while the British then supported it. Pius XII similarly advocated for the declaration of Rome as an "open city", but this occurred only on 14 August 1943, after Rome had already been bombed twice. Although the Italians consulted the Vatican on the wording of the open city declaration, the impetus for the change had little to do with the Vatican.

Recent History

In 1984, a new concordat between the Holy See and Italy modified certain provisions of the earlier treaty, including the position of Roman Catholicism as the Italian state religion.

Holy See of Saint Peter

The Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, Italian: Santa Sede) refers to the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome. The primacy of Rome makes its bishop the worldwide leader of the church, commonly known as the Pope. Since Rome is the preeminent episcopal see of the church, it contains the central government of the church, including various agencies essential to administration. As such, diplomatically, the Holy See acts and speaks for the whole Catholic Church. It is also recognized by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope, with which diplomatic relations can be maintained."

Although it is often referred to as "the Vatican", the Holy See is not the same entity as the Vatican City State, which came into existence only in 1929; the Holy See, the episcopal see of Rome, dates back to early Christian times. Ambassadors are officially accredited not to the Vatican City State but to "the Holy See", and papal representatives to states and international organizations are recognized as representing the Holy See, not the Vatican City State. Though all episcopal sees may be considered "holy", the expression "the Holy See" (without further specification) is normally used in international relations (and in the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church) to refer to the See of Rome viewed as the central government of the Roman Catholic Church.

The British Foreign and Commonwealth Office speaks of Vatican City as the "capital" of the Holy See, although it compares the legal personality of the Holy See to that of the Crown in Christian monarchies and declares that the Holy See and the state of Vatican City are two international identities. It also distinguishes between the employees of the Holy See (2,750 working in the Roman Curia with another 333 working in the Holy See's diplomatic missions abroad) and the 1,909 employees of the state. The British Ambassador to the Holy See uses more precise language, saying that the Holy See "is not the same as the Vatican City State. ... (It) is the universal government of the Catholic Church and operates from the Vatican City State." This agrees exactly with the expression used by the website of the United States Department of State, in giving information on both the Holy See and the Vatican City State: it too says that the Holy See "operates from the Vatican City State" 

Organization

The Pope governs the Catholic Church through the Roman Curia. The Roman Curia consists of a complex of offices that administer church affairs at the highest level, including the Secretariat of State, nine Congregations, three Tribunals, eleven Pontifical Councils, and seven Pontifical Commissions. The Secretariat of State, under the Cardinal Secretary of State, directs and coordinates the Curia. The incumbent, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, is the See's equivalent of a prime minister. Archbishop Dominique Mamberti, Secretary of the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State, acts as the Holy See's minister of foreign affairs. Bertone and Mamberti were named in their respective roles by Pope Benedict XVI in September 2006. The Secretariat of State is the only body of the Curia that is situated within Vatican City. The others are in buildings in different parts of Rome that have extraterritorial rights similar to those of embassies.

Among the most active of the major Curial institutions are the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which oversees the Catholic Church's doctrine; the Congregation for Bishops, which coordinates the appointment of bishops worldwide; the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, which oversees all missionary activities; and the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, which deals with international peace and social issues.

Three tribunals exercise judicial power. The Roman Rota handles normal judicial appeals, the most numerous being those that concern alleged nullity of marriage.[7] The Apostolic Signatura is the supreme appellate and administrative court concerning decisions even of the Roman Rota and administrative decisions of ecclesiastical superiors (bishops and superiors of religious institutes), such as closing a parish or removing someone from office. It also oversees the work of other ecclesiastical tribunals at all levels. The Apostolic Penitentiary deals not with external judgments or decrees, but with matters of conscience, granting absolutions from censures, dispensations, commutations, validations, condonations, and other favours; it also grants indulgences.

The Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See coordinates the finances of the Holy See departments and supervises the administration of all offices, whatever be their degree of autonomy, that manage these finances. The most important of these is the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See. The Prefecture of the Papal Household is responsible for the organization of the papal household, audiences, and ceremonies (apart from the strictly liturgical part).

The Holy See does not dissolve upon a Pope's death or resignation. It instead operates under a different set of laws sede vacante. During this interregnum, the heads of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia (such as the prefects of congregations) cease immediately to hold office, the only exceptions being the Major Penitentiary, who continues his important role regarding absolutions and dispensations, and the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, who administers the temporalities (i.e., properties and finances) of the See of St. Peter during this period. The government of the See, and therefore of the Catholic Church, then falls to the College of Cardinals. Canon law prohibits the College and the Camerlengo from introducing any innovations or novelties in the government of the Church during this period. In 2001, the Holy See had a revenue of 422.098 billion Italian lire (about 202 million USD at the time), and a net income of 17.720 billion Italian lire (about 8 million USD) 

International status of the Holy See

The Holy See has been recognized, both in state practice and in the writing of modern legal scholars, as a subject of public international law, with rights and duties analogous to those of States. Although the Holy See, as distinct from the Vatican City State, does not fulfil the long-established criteria in international law of statehood-having a permanent population, a defined territory, a stable government and the capacity to enter into relations with other states -its possession of full legal personality in international law is shown by the fact that it maintains diplomatic relations with 179 states, that it is a member-state in various intergovernmental international organizations, and that it is: "respected by the international community of sovereign States and treated as a subject of international law having the capacity to engage in diplomatic relations and to enter into binding agreements with one, several, or many states under international law that are largely geared to establish and preserving peace in the world."

Diplomacy

Since medieval times the episcopal see of Rome has been recognized as a sovereign entity. The Holy See (not the State of Vatican City) maintains formal diplomatic relations with 179 sovereign states, and also with the European Union, and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, as well as having relations of a special character with the Palestine Liberation Organization; 69 of the diplomatic missions accredited to the Holy See are situated in Rome. The Holy See maintains 180 permanent diplomatic missions abroad, of which 74 are non-residential, so that many of its 106 concrete missions are accredited to two or more countries or international organizations. The diplomatic activities of the Holy See are directed by the Secretariat of State (headed by the Cardinal Secretary of State), through the Section for Relations with States. There are 15 internationally recognized states with which the Holy See does not have relations. The Holy See is the only European subject of international law that has official diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The Holy See is a member of various International organizations and groups including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International Telecommunication Union, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The Holy See is also a permanent observer in various international organizations, including the United Nations General Assembly, the Council of Europe, UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

Relationship with the Vatican City and other territories

The Holy See participates as an observer in AU, Arab League, Council of Europe, OAS, IOM, and in the UN and its agencies FAO, ILO, UNCTAD, UNEP, UNESCO, UN-HABITAT, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, WFP, WHO, WIPO. It participates as a guest in NAM, and as a full member in IAEA, OPCW, OSCE.

Although the Holy See is closely associated with the Vatican City, the independent territory over which the Holy See is sovereign, the two entities are separate and distinct. After the Italian takeover of the Papal States in 1870, the Holy See had no territorial sovereignty. In spite of some uncertainty among jurists as to whether it could continue to act as an independent personality in international matters, the Holy See continued in fact to exercise the right to send and receive diplomatic representatives, maintaining relations with states that included the major powers of Russia, Prussia and Austria-Hungary. Where, in accordance with the decision of the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the Nuncio was not only a member of the Diplomatic Corps but its Dean, this arrangement continued to be accepted by the other ambassadors. In the course of the 59 years during which the Holy See held no territorial sovereignty, the number of states that had diplomatic relations with it, which had been reduced to 16, actually increased to 29.

The State of the Vatican City was created by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 to "ensure the absolute and visible independence of the Holy See" and "to guarantee to it an indisputable sovereignty in international affairs" (quotations from the treaty). Archbishop Jean-Louis Tauran, the Holy See's former Secretary for Relations with States, said that the Vatican City is a "minuscule support-state that guarantees the spiritual freedom of the Pope with the minimum territory". The Holy See, not the Vatican City, maintains diplomatic relations with states. Foreign embassies are accredited to the Holy See, not to the Vatican City, and it is the Holy See that establishes treaties and concordats with other sovereign entities. When necessary, the Holy See will enter a treaty on behalf of the Vatican City. Under the terms of the Lateran Treaty, the Holy See has extraterritorial authority over 23 sites in Rome and five Italian sites outside of Rome, including the Pontifical Palace at Castel Gandolfo. The same authority is extended under international law over the Apostolic Nunciature of the Holy See in a foreign country.

List of Popes

This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes. Published every year by the Roman Curia, the Annuario Pontificio attaches no consecutive numbers to the popes, stating that it is impossible to decide which side represented at various times the legitimate succession, in particular regarding Pope Leo VIII, Pope Benedict V and some mid-11th-century popes.

The 2001 edition of the Annuario Pontificio introduced "almost 200 corrections to its existing biographies of the popes, from St Peter to John Paul II". The corrections concerned dates, especially in the first two centuries, birthplaces and the family name of one pope.

The term pope (Latin: papa "father") is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders (for example Coptic Pope). This title in English usage usually refers to the head of the Roman Catholic Church. The Roman Catholic pope uses various titles by tradition, including Papa, Summus Pontifex, Pontifex Maximus, and Servus servorum Dei. Each title has been added by unique historical events and unlike other papal prerogatives, is not incapable of modification.

Hermannus Contractus may have been the first historian to number the popes continuously. His list ends in 1049 with Pope Leo IX as number 154. Several changes were made to the list during the 20th century. Antipope Christopher was considered legitimate for a long time. Pope-elect Stephen was considered legitimate under the name Stephen II until the 1961 edition, when his name was erased. Although these changes are no longer controversial, a number of modern lists still include this "first Pope Stephen II". It is probable that this is because they are based on the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain.

Chronological list of popes

1st century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
1 33 - 64/67 Pope-peter pprubens.jpg St Peter
PETRUS
Simon Peter
Shimon Kipha
CΙΜΗΟΝ ΚΗΦΑC
ܫܶܡܥܽܘܢ ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ
(Simeon Kephas - Simon the Rock)
Bethsaida, Galilea Apostle of Jesus from whom he received the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven, according to Matthew 16:18-19 . Executed by crucifixion upside-down; feast day (Feast of Saints Peter and Paul) 29 June, (Chair of Saint Peter) 22 February. Recognized by the Catholic Church as the first Bishop of Rome (Pope) appointed by Christ. Also revered as saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 29 June.[4]
2 64/67(?) - 76/79(?) Linus2.jpg St Linus
LINUS
Linus Tuscia (Central Tuscany) Feast day 23 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.
3 76/79(?) - 88/92 Popeanacletus.JPG St Anacletus
(Cletus)
ANACLETUS
Anacletus Probably Greece Martyred; feast day 26 April. Once erroneously split into Cletus and Anacletus[5]
4 88/92 - 97 San Clemente de Roma.jpg St Clement I
CLEMENS
Clement Rome Feast day 23 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 November.
5 97/99 - 105/107 Evaristus.jpg St Evaristus
(Aristus)
EVARISTUS
Aristus Bethlehem, Judea Feast day 26 October

2nd century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
6 105/107 - 115/116 Pope Alexander I.jpg St Alexander I
ALEXANDER
Alexánder Rome Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 16 March.
7 115/116 - 125 SixtusI.jpg St Sixtus I
XYSTUS
  Rome or Greece Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
8 125 - 136/138   St Telesphorus
TELESPHORUS
  Greece  
9 136/138 - 140/142 Hyginus.jpg St Hyginus
HYGINUS
  Greece Traditionally martyred; feast day 11 January
10 140/142 - 155   St Pius I
PIUS
  Aquileia, Friuli, Italy Martyred by sword; feast day 11 July
11 155 - 166 Papa Aniceto cropped.jpg St Anicetus
ANICETUS
  Emesa, Syria Traditionally martyred; feast day 17 April
12 c.166 - 174/175 Soter.jpg St Soter
SOTERIUS
  Fondi, Latium, Italy Traditionally martyred; feast day 22 April
13 174/175 - 189 Eleutherius.jpg St Eleuterus
ELEUTHERIUS
  Nicopoli, Epyrus Traditionally martyred; feast day 6 May
14 189 - 198/199 Victor I..jpg St Victor I
VICTOR
  Northern Africa  
15 199 - 217 Saintz05.jpg St Zephyrinus
(Zephyrin)
ZEPHYRINUS
  Rome  

3rd century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
16 c.217 - 222/223 CalixtusI.jpg St Callixtus I
CALLISTUS
  Spain Martyred; feast day 14 October
17 222/223 - 230 UrbanI.jpg St Urban I
URBANUS
  Rome Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 May.
18 21 July 230
- 28 September 235
(5 years)
Pope Pontian.jpg St Pontian
PONTIANUS
  Rome First to abdicate office after exile to Sardinia by Emperor Maximinus Thrax. The Liberian Cataloguerecords his death on September 28, 235, the earliest exact date in papal history.[6][7]
19 21 November 235
- 3 January 236
(44 days)
Pope Anterus.jpg St Anterus
ANTERUS
  Greece Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
20 10 January 236
- 20 January 250
(14 years)
Saint Fabian1.jpg St Fabian
FABIANUS
  Rome Feast day 20 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
21 6/11 March 251
- June 253
(2 years)
Heiliger Cornelius.jpg St Cornelius
CORNELIUS
    Died a martyr, through extreme hardship; feast day 16 September
22 25 June 253
- 5 March 254
(256 days)
Lucius I.jpg St Lucius I
LUCIUS
  Rome Feast day 4 March
23 12 May 254
- 2 August 257
(3 years)
Stephen I.jpg St Stephen I
STEPHANUS
  Rome Martyred by beheading; feast day 2 August. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with the same feast day.
24 30/31 August 257
- 6 August 258
(340/341 days)
Sandro Botticelli - Sixte II.jpg St Sixtus II
XYSTUS Secundus
  Greece Martyred by beheading. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
25 22 July 259
- 26 December 268
(9 years)
Pope Dionysius.jpg St Dionysius
DIONYSIUS
  Greece Feast day 26 December
26 5 January 269
- 30 December 274
(5 years)
PopeFelixI.jpg St Felix I
FELIX
  Rome  
27 4 January 275
- 7 December 283
(8 years)
Eutychian.jpg St Eutychian
EUTYCHIANUS
     
28 17 December 283
- 22 April 296
(12 years)
PCaius.jpg St Caius
CAIUS
    Martyred (according to legend) Feast day 22 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 11 August.
29 30 June 296
- 1 April 304
(7 years)
Marcellinus.jpg St Marcellinus
MARCELLINUS
    Feast day 26 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.

4th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
30 308 - 309 Papa Marcelo I.jpg St Marcellus I
MARCELLUS
     
31 c.309 - c.310 Eusebius.jpg St Eusebius
EUSEBIUS
     
32 2 July 311
- 10 January 314
(2 years)
Pope miltiades.jpg St Miltiades
(Melchiades)
MILTIADES
  Africa First pope after the end of the persecution of Christians through the Edict of Milan (313 AD) issued by Constantine the Great
33 31 January 314
- 31 December 335
(21 years)
Sylvester I.jpg St Sylvester I
SILVESTER
  Sant'Angelo a Scala, Avellino Feast day 31 December. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 2 January. First Council of Nicaea, 325.
34 18 January 336
- 7 October 336
(263 days)
Marcus (papa).jpg St Mark
MARCUS
  Rome Feast day 7 October
35 6 February 337
- 12 April 352
(15 years)
Iulius I.jpg St Julius I
IULIUS
  Rome  
36 17 May 352
- 24 September 366
(14 years)
Paderborner Dom Dreifaltigkeitskapelle Liborius.jpg Liberius
LIBERIUS
    Earliest Pope not yet canonized by the Roman Church. Revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 27 August.[8]
37 1 October 366
- 11 December 384
(18 years)
Saintdamasus.png St Damasus I
DAMASUS
  Idanha-a-Velha, Portugal Patron of Jerome, commissioned the Vulgate translation of the Bible. Council of Rome, 382.
38 11 December 384
- 26 November 399
(14 years)
Siricius.jpg St Siricius
Papa
SIRICIUS
     
39 27 November 399
- 19 December 401
(2 years)
Anastasius I.jpg St Anastasius I
Papa
ANASTASIUS
     

5th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
40 22 December 401
- 12 March 417
(15 years)
Innocentius I.jpg St Innocent I
Papa
INNOCENTIUS
    Visigoth Sack of Rome (410) under Alaric
41 18 March 417
- 26 December 418
(1 year)
Zosimus.jpg St Zosimus
Papa
ZOSIMUS
     
42 28/29 December 418
- 4 September 422
(3 years)
Pope Boniface I.jpg St Boniface I
Papa
BONIFACIUS
     
43 10 September 422
- 27 July 432
(9 years)
Celestine1pope.jpg St Celestine I
Papa
COELESTINUS
  Rome, Western Roman Empire Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 8 April.
44 31 July 432
- March/August 440
(8 years)
  St Sixtus III
Papa
SIXTUS Tertius
     
45 29 September 440
- 10 November 461
(21 years)
Greatleoone.jpg St Leo I
(Leo the Great)
Papa
LEO MAGNUS
  Rome Convinced Attila the Hun to turn back his invasion of Italy. Feast day 10 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 18 February.
46 19 November 461
- 29 February 468
(6 years)
Nuremberg chronicles - Hilarius, Pope (CXXXVIv).jpg St Hilarius
Papa
HILARIUS
  Sardinia, Western Roman Empire  
47 3 March 468
- 10 March 483
(15 years)
Sansimpliciopapa.jpg St Simplicius
Papa
SIMPLICIUS
  Tivoli, Italy  
48 13 March 483
- 1 March 492
(8 years)
Felix3.jpg St Felix III (Felix II)
Papa
FELIX Tertius (Secundus)
  Rome Sometimes called Felix II
49 1 March 492
- 21 November 496
(4 years)
Papa Gelasio I.jpg St Gelasius I
Papa
GELASIUS
  Africa  
50 24 November 496
- 19 November 498
(1 year)
Anastasius II.jpg Anastasius II
Papa
ANASTASIUS Secundus
     
51 22 November 498
- 19 July 514
(15 years)
Simmaco - mosaico Santa Agnese fuori le mura.jpg St Symmachus
Papa
SYMMACHUS
  Sardinia  

6th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
52 20 July 514
- 19 July 523
(8 years)
  St Hormisdas
Papa
HORMISDUS
  Frosinone, Southern Latium, Italy Father of Pope Silverius
53 13 August 523
- 18 May 526
(2 years)
Papa Ioannes I.jpg St John I
Papa
IOANNES
  Tuscany  
54 13 July 526
- 22 September 530
(4 years)
Mosaic of Felix IV (III) in Santi Cosma e Damiano, Rome, Italy (527-530).jpg St Felix IV (Felix III)
Papa
FELIX Quartus (Tertius)
  Samnium Sometimes called Felix III
55 22 September 530
- 17 October 532
(2 years)
Boniface II.jpg Boniface II
Papa
BONIFACIUS Secundus
  Rome to Ostrogoth parents  
56 2 January 533
- 8 May 535
(2 years)
Johannes II.jpg John II
Papa
IOANNES Secundus
Mercúrius Rome First pope to not use personal name. This was due to Mercury being a Roman god.
57 13 May 535
- 22 April 536
(346 days)
Agapitus I.jpg St Agapetus I
(Agapitus)
Papa
AGAPETUS
  Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom Feast days 22 April, 20 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 17 April.
58 1 June 536
- 11 November 537
(1 year)
Silverius.jpg St Silverius
Papa
SILVERIUS
    Exiled; feast day 20 June, son of Pope Hormisdas
59 29 March 537
- 7 June 555
(18 years)
Vigilius.jpg Vigilius
Papa
VIGILIUS
  Rome  
60 16 April 556
- 4 March 561
(5 years)
Pope Pelagius I.jpg Pelagius I
Papa
PELAGIUS
  Rome  
61 17 July 561
- 13 July 574
(12 years)
Papa Joao III.jpg John III
Papa
IOANNES Tertius
Catelinus Rome, Eastern Roman Empire  
62 2 June 575
- 30 July 579
(4 years)
Benedict I.jpg Benedict I
Papa
BENEDICTUS
     
63 26 November 579
- 7 February 590
(10 years)
PopePelagiusII.jpg Pelagius II
Papa
PELAGIUS Secundus
  Rome  
64 3 September 590
- 12 March 604
(13 years)
Gregorythegreat.jpg St Gregory I, O.S.B.
(Gregory the Great)
Papa
GREGORIUS MAGNUS
  Rome First to formally employ the titles "Servus servorum Dei" and "Pontifex Maximus". Feast day 3 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 12 March.

7th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
65 13 September 604
- 22 February 606
(1 year)
Sabinian.jpg Sabinian
Papa
SABINIANUS
  Blera  
66 19 February 607
- 12 November 607
(267 days)
Boniface III.jpg Boniface III
Papa
BONIFACIUS Tertius
  Rome  
67 25 August 608
- 8 May 615
(6 years)
Boniface IV.jpg St Boniface IV, O.S.B.
Papa
BONIFACIUS Quartus
  Marsi First Pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
68 19 October 615
- 8 November 618
(3 years)
Papa Adeodato I.jpg St Adeodatus I
(Deusdedit)
Papa
ADEODATUS
  Rome Sometimes called Deusdedit, as a result Pope Adeodatus II is sometimes called Pope Adeodatus without a number
69 23 December 619
- 25 October 625
(5 years)
Papa Bonifacio V.jpg Boniface V
Papa
BONIFACIUS Quintus
  Naples  
70 27 October 625
- 12 October 638
(12 years)
Onorio I - mosaico Santa Agnese fuori le mura.jpg Honorius I
Papa
HONORIUS
  Campania, Byzantine Empire  
71 October 638
- 2 August 640
(1 year)
Severinopapa.jpg Severinus
Papa
SEVERINUS
  Rome  
72 24 December 640
- 12 October 642
(1 year)
Murner History Cod Karlsruhe 3117 (crop).jpg John IV
Papa
IOANNES Quartus
  Zadar, Dalmatia, now Croatia  
73 24 November 642
- 14 May 649
(6 years)
Theodorus I.jpg Theodore I
Papa
THEODORUS
  Palestine  
74 July 649
- 16 September 655
(6 years)
Pope Martin I.jpg St Martin I
Papa
MARTINUS
  Near Todi, Umbria, Byzantine Empire Feast Day 12 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 14 April.
75 10 August 654
- 2 June 657
(2 years)
PopeeugeneI.jpg St Eugene I
Papa
EUGENIUS
  Rome  
76 30 July 657
- 27 January 672
(14 years)
Pope Vitalian.jpg St Vitalian
Papa
VITALIANUS
  Segni, Byzantine Empire  
77 11 April 672
- 17 June 676
(4 years)
Adeodatus II.jpg Adeodatus II, O.S.B.
Papa
ADEODATUS Secundus
  Rome, Byzantine Empire Sometimes called Pope Adeodatus (without a number) in reference to Pope Adeodatus I sometimes being called Pope Deusdedit. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
78 2 November 676
- 11 April 678
(1 year)
Popedonus.jpg Donus
Papa
DONUS
  Rome, Byzantine Empire  
79 27 June 678
- 10 January 681
(2 years)
Agatho.gif St Agatho
Papa
AGATHO
  Sicily Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 20 February.
80 December 681
- 3 July 683
(1 year)
  St Leo II
Papa
LEO Secundus
  Sicily Feast day 3 July
81 26 June 684
- 8 May 685
(317 days)
BenedictII.jpg St Benedict II
Papa
BENEDICTUS Secundus
  Rome, Byzantine Empire Feast day 7 May
82 12 July 685
- 2 August 686
(1 year)
Johannes V.jpg John V
Papa
IOANNES Quintus
  Syria  
83 21 October 686
- 22 September 687
(335 days)
Konon.jpg Conon
Papa
CONON
     
84 15 December 687
- 8 September 701
(13 years)
Sergius I.jpg St Sergius I
Papa
SERGIUS
  Sicily  

8th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
85 30 October 701
- 11 January 705
(3 years)
John VI.jpg John VI
Papa
IOANNES Sextus
  Greece  
86 1 March 705
- 18 October 707
(2 years)
Byzantinischer Mosaizist um 705 002.jpg John VII
Papa
IOANNES Septimus
  Greece Second pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor
87 15 January 708
- 4 February 708
(21 days)
Sisinnius.jpg Sisinnius
Papa
SISINNIUS
  Syria  
88 25 March 708
- 9 April 715
(7 years)
  Constantine
Papa
CONSTANTINUS
  Syria Last pope to visit Greece while in office, until John Paul II in 2001
89 19 May 715
- 11 February 731
(15 years)
GregoryII.jpg St Gregory II
Papa
GREGORIUS Secundus
  Rome, Byzantine Empire Feast day 11 February
90 18 March 731
- 28 November 741
(10 years)
  St Gregory III
Papa
GREGORIUS Tertius
  Syria Third pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor
91 3 December 741
- 14/22 March 752
(10 years)
Pope Zachary.jpg St Zachary
Papa
ZACHARIAS
  Greece Feast day 15 March
(never consecrated) 23 March 752
- 25 March 752
(Never took office as pope)
  Pope-elect Stephen
Papa Electus
STEPHANUS
    Sometimes known as Stephen II. Died three days after his election having never received episcopal consecration. Some lists still include his name. The Vatican sanctioned his addition to the list of popes in the sixteenth century; however he was removed in 1961. He is no longer considered a pope by the Catholic Church.
92 26 March 752
- 26 April 757
(5 years)
La donacion de Pipino el Breve al Papa Esteban II.jpg Stephen II (Stephen III)
Papa
STEPHANUS Secundus (Tertius)
    Sometimes called Stephen III
93 29 May 757
- 28 June 767
(10 years)
Paul I.jpg St Paul I
Papa
PAULUS
  Rome  
94 1/7 August 767
- 24 January 772
(4 years)
StephenIII.jpg Stephen III (Stephen IV)
Papa
STEPHANUS Tertius (Quartus)
  Sicily Sometimes called Stephen IV
95 1 February 772
- 26 December 795
(23 years)
Pope Adrian I.jpg Adrian I
Papa
HADRIANUS
  Rome  
96 26 December 795
- 12 June 816
(20 years)
Leo III.jpg St Leo III
Papa
LEO Tertius
  Rome Crowned Charlemagne Imperator Augustus on Christmas Day, 800, thereby initiating what would become the office of Holy Roman Emperor requiring the imprimatur of the pope for its legitimacy

9th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Age at election / death or resigned # years as pope Notes
97 12 June 816 - 24 January 817 Stephen IV.jpg Stephen IV (Stephen V)
Papa
STEPHANUS Quartus (Quintus)
      <1 Sometimes called Stephen V
98 25 January 817 - 11 February 824 Apsis - Paschalis I..gif St Paschal I
Papa
PASCHALIS
  Rome   7  
99 8 May 824 - August 827 Eugene II.jpg Eugene II
Papa
EUGENIUS Secundus
  Rome   3  
100 August 827 - September 827 Valentine.jpg Valentine
Papa
VALENTINUS
  Rome   <1  
101 827 - January 844 Greg4papa.jpg Gregory IV
Papa
GREGORIUS Quartus
  Rome   17  
102 January 844 - 7 January 847   Sergius II
Papa
SERGIUS Secundus
  Rome   3  
103 January 847 - 17 July 855 Pope St. Leo IV.jpg St Leo IV, O.S.B.
Papa
LEO Quartus
  Rome   8 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
104 855 - 7 April 858   Benedict III
Papa
BENEDICTUS Tertius
  Rome      
105 24 April 858 - 13 November 867 NicholasI.jpg St Nicholas I
(Nicholas the Great)
Papa
NICOLAUS MAGNUS
  Rome   9  
106 14 December 867 - 14 December 872 Adrian II.jpg Adrian II
Papa
HADRIANUS Secundus
  Rome   5  
107 14 December 872 - 16 December 882   John VIII
Papa
IOANNES Octavus
  Rome   10  
108 16 December 882 - 15 May 884 Marinus I.jpg Marinus I
Papa
MARINUS
  Gallese, Rome   1  
109 17 May 884 - c.September 885 Papa Adriano III.jpg St Adrian III
Papa
HADRIANUS Tertius
  Rome      
110 885 - 14 September 891 Stephen V.jpg Stephen V (Stephen VI)
Papa
STEPHANUS Quintus (Sextus)
  Rome     Sometimes called Stephen VI
111 19 September 891 - 4 April 896 PopeFormosusBW.jpg Formosus
Papa
FORMOSUS
  Ostia   4 Posthumously ritually executed following the Cadaver Synod
112 4 April 896 - 19 April 896 Boniface VI.jpg Boniface VI
Papa
BONIFACIUS Sextus
  Rome   <1  
113 22 May 896 - August 897 Stephen VI.jpg Stephen VI (Stephen VII)
Papa
STEPHANUS Sextus (Septimus)
      1 Sometimes called Stephen VII
114 August 897 - November 897   Romanus
Papa
ROMANUS
  Gallese, Rome   <1  
115 December 897   Theodore II
Papa
THEODORUS Secundus
  Rome   <1  
116 January 898 - January 900 John IX.jpg John IX, O.S.B.
Papa
IOANNES Nonus
  Tivoli     Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
117 900 - 903   Benedict IV
Papa
BENEDICTUS Quartus
  Rome      

 

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