Home Page
Comité de Patronage
Commercial Directory - 2017
History of the Old Almanach de Gotha
Gallery - Old Gotha Bookplates
Sovereign Houses - Index
Mediatized Houses - Index
Non-Sovereign Houses - Index
Royal Families of the World - Index
Higher Nobility of Europe - Index
Nobility of the World - Index
Official Royal Websites
Royal Birthday Calendar
Quotations on Monarchy
Diana - Princess of Wales
Catherine - Duchess of Cambridge
HRH Prince George of Cambridge
Dukes of Hohenberg
Early Kings of Sweden - Norway - Denmark
Richest Monarchs and Royals
Abbreviations
European Titles and Prefixes
Chivalric Orders of Knighthood
Royal Exhibitions and Events - 2017
Royal Web Links Directory - 2017
Charities Directory - 2017
Jesus Christ
Kingdom of Albania
Principality of Andorra
Duchy of Anhalt - Part I
Duchy of Anhalt - Part II
Empire of Austria-Hungary - Part I
Empire of Austria-Hungary - Part II
Empire of Austria-Hungary - Part III
Empire of Austria-Hungary - Part IV
Grand Duchy of Baden
Kingdom of Bavaria
Kingdom of Belgium
Empire of Brazil
Kingdom of Bohemia
Duchy of Brunswick
Kingdom of Bulgaria
Kingdom of Croatia
Duchy of Courland
Kingdom of Dalmatia
Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of France
Kingdom of the French
Empire of the French
Kingdom of Finland
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
Kingdom of Georgia
German Empire
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - Part I
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - Part II
Kingdom of Greece
Kingdom of Hannover
Electorate of Hesse-Kassel
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel
Landgraviate of Hesse-Philippsthal
Landgraviate of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld
Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine
Landgraviate of Hesse-Homburg
Principality of Hohenzollern-Hechingen
Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg
Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg
Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
Kingdom of Hungary
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Vatican State - Part I
Holy Vatican State - Part II
Kingdom of Iceland
Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Italy
Principality of Liechtenstein
Principality of Lippe
Kingdom of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Luxemburg
Order of St John
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Duchy of Modena
Empire of Mexico
Principality of Monaco
Kingdom of Montenegro
Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of The Netherlands
Kingdom of Norway
Grand Duchy of Oldenburg
Ottoman Empire
Kingdom of Portugal
Duchy of Parma
Kingdom of Prussia
Principality of Reuss - Elder Line
Principality of Reuss - Younger Line
Kingdom of Romania
Empire of Russia - Part I
Empire of Russia - Part II
Kingdom of Sardina
Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen
Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg
Duchy of Saxe-Coburg und Gotha - Part I
Duchy of Saxe-Coburg und Gotha - Part II
Kingdom of Saxony
Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe
Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Spain
Kingdom of Sweden
Kingdom of Sicily
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Principality of Waldeck
Kingdom of Wurttemberg
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Mediatized Houses
House of Arenberg
House of Auersperg
House of Bentheim
House of Bentinck
House of Castell
House of Colloredo
House of Croy
House of Erbach
House of Esterhazy
House of Fugger
House of Furstenberg
House of Harrach
House of Hohenlohe - Part I
House of Hohenlohe - Part II
House of Isenburg
House of Khevenhuller
House of Konigsegg
House of Kuefstein
House of Leiningen
House of Leyen
House of Lobkowicz
House of Looz und Corswarem
House of Löwenstein
House of Metternich-Winneburg
House of Neipperg
House of Oettingen
House of Orsini-Rosenberg
House of Ortenburg
House of Pappenheim
House of Platen-Hallermund
House of Puckler und Limpurg
House of Quadt
House of Rechberg
House of Rechteren-Limpurg
House of Salm-Salm
House of Salm-Reifferscheidt
House of Starhemberg
House of Sayn-Wittgenstein
House of Schaesberg
House of Schlitz von Gortz
House of Schonborn
House of Schonburg
House of Schwarzenberg
House of Solms
House of Stolberg
House of Thurn und Taxis
House of Toerring-Jettenbach
House of Trauttmansdorff
House of Waldbott
House of Waldburg
House of Wied
House of Windisch-Gratz
House of Wurmbrand-Stuppach
Princely and Ducal - AI
Princely and Ducal - AII
Princely and Ducal - BI
Princely and Ducal - BII
Princely and Ducal - BIII
Princely and Ducal - BIV
Princely and Ducal - BV
Princely and Ducal - CI
Princely and Ducal - CII
Princely and Ducal - CIII
Princely and Ducal - CIV
Princely and Ducal - DI
Princely and Ducal - DII
Princely and Ducal - EI
Princely and Ducal - FI
Princely and Ducal - FII
Princely and Ducal - GI
Princely and Ducal - GII
Princely and Ducal - GIII
Princely and Ducal - HI
Princely and Ducal - HII
Princely and Ducal - HIII
Princely and Ducal - II
Princely and Ducal - JI
Princely and Ducal - KI
Princely and Ducal - LI
Princely and Ducal - LII
Princely and Ducal - LIII
Princely and Ducal - LIV
Princely and Ducal - MI
Princely and Ducal - MII
Princely and Ducal - NI
Princely and Ducal - NII
Princely and Ducal - NIII
Princely and Ducal - OI
Princely and Ducal - PI
Princely and Ducal - PII
Princely and Ducal - PIII
Princely and Ducal - PIV
Princely and Ducal - RI
Princely and Ducal - RII
Princely and Ducal - RIII
Princely and Ducal - SI
Princely and Ducal - SII
Princely and Ducal - SIII
Princely and Ducal - SIV
Princely and Ducal - TI
Princely and Ducal - TII
Princely and Ducal - UI
Princely and Ducal - VI
Princely and Ducal - WI
Princely and Ducal - WII
Nobility of Holy Roman Empire - I
Nobility of Holy Roman Empire - II
Nobility of Holy Roman Empire - III
Nobility of Holy Roman Empire - IV
Nobility of Holy Roman Empire - V
British Peerage Part I
British Peerage Part II
British Peerage Part III - A
British Peerage Part III - B
British Peerage Part IV
Higher Nobility I
Higher Nobility II
Higher Nobility III
Higher Nobility IV
Higher Nobility V
Higher Nobility VI
Higher Nobility VII
Higher Nobility VIII
Higher Nobility IX
Higher Nobility X
Higher Nobility XI
Higher Nobility XII
Higher Nobility XIII
Higher Nobility XIV
Higher Nobility XV
Higher Nobility XVI
Nobility of Armenia
Nobility of Albania
Nobility of Austria
Nobility of Belgium
Nobility of Denmark
Nobility of Netherlands
Nobility of Finland
Nobility of France
Nobility of Germany
Nobility of Hungary
Nobility of Italy
Jacobite Nobility
Jewish Nobility
Nobility of Lithuania
Nobility of Malta
Nobility of Mexico - Brazil
Nobility of Norway
Nobility of Poland - Part I
Nobility of Poland - Part II
Nobility of Russia
Nobility of Spain
Nobility of Sweden
Nobility of Switzerland
Nobility of Ireland
US Colonial Families - Part I
US Colonial Families - Part II
Indian Princely Families and States
Nobility of China
Nobility of the Ottoman Empire
Kingdom of Morocco
Kingdom of Bhutan
Empire of China
Kingdom of Egypt
Empire of Ethiopia
Empire of Haiti
Kingdom of Hawaii
Empire of Persia
Kingdom of Iraq
Kingdom of Jordan
Empire of Korea
Kingdom of Tahiti
Kingdom of Tunisia
Kingdom of Nepal
Kingdom of Libya
Empire of Vietnam
Kingdom of Cambodia
Kingdom of Madagascar
Sultanate of Oman
Kingdom of Bahrain
Kingdom of Swaziland
Kingdom of Afghanistan
Sultanate of Brunei
Sultanate of Zanzibar
Kingdom of Rwanda
Kingdom of Laos
Kingdom of Tonga
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Empire of Japan
State of Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Kingdom of Lesotho
Malaysia
State of Kuwait
Kingdom of Thailand
Kingdom of Burundi
Kingdom of Yemen
Mughal Empire

 Thumbnail for version as of 16:10, 3 February 2012
 
andorra-flag-principality.gif
 
Principality of Andorra
Principat D'Andorra - Co-Princes
Bishop of Urgell - President of France
 
Andorra /ænˈdɒrə/ (help·info), officially the Principality of Andorra (Catalan: Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra, is a small country in southwestern Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain and France. It is the sixth smallest nation in Europe having an area of 468 km2 (181 sq mi) and an estimated population of 83,888 in 2009. Its capital, Andorra la Vella, is the highest capital city in Europe, being at an elevation of 1023 metres. The official language is Catalan, although Spanish, French, and Portuguese are also commonly spoken.
 
co-princes-of-andorra.jpg 

The Principality was formed in 1278. The rôle of monarch is shared between the President of the French Republic and the Bishop of Urgell, Catalonia, Spain. It is a prosperous country mainly because of its tourism industry, which services an estimated 10.2 million visitors annually, and also because of its status as a tax haven. It is not a member of the European Union, but the euro is the de facto currency. The people of Andorra have the 2nd highest human life expectancy in the world - 82 years at birth.

 charlemagne.jpg

A Brief History of Andorra

Andorra is the last independent of the buffer states (Marca Hispanica) that were created by Charlemagne (742-814) to keep the Moors from invading France. In the 9th century the counts of Urgell became overlordof Andorra. Later on they gave the land to the Diocese of Urgell. Andorra was in 1396 and 1512 briefly annexed by the Kingdom of Aragon. The Counts de Foix were co-prince from 1278 to 1517, the royal house of Navarre from 1517 to 1572.

alfonsoII_countoffoix.jpg

 Afterwards the kings of France became co-prince. An edict of 1607 officially established the head of the French state and the Bishop of Urgell as co-princes of Andorra.Tradition holds that Charles the Great (Charlemagne) granted a charter to the Andorran people in return for fighting against the Moors. Overlordship of the territory was by the Count of Urgell and eventually by the bishop of the Diocese of Urgell. In 988, Borrell II, Count of Urgell, gave the Andorran valleys to the Diocese of Urgell in exchange for land in Cerdanya. Since then the Bishop of Urgell, based in Seu d'Urgell, has owned Andorra.

andorra-bishop.jpg 

Before 1095, Andorra did not have any type of military protection and the Bishop of Urgell, who knew that the Count of Urgell wanted to reclaim the Andorran valleys, asked for help and protection from the Lord of Caboet. In 1095, the Lord of Caboet and the Bishop of Urgell signed under oath a declaration of their co-sovereignty over Andorra. Arnalda, daughter of Arnau of Caboet, married the Viscount of Castellbò and both became Viscounts of Castellbò and Cerdanya. Years later their daughter, Ermessenda, married Roger Bernat II, the French Count of Foix. They became Roger Bernat II and Ermessenda I, Counts of Foix, Viscounts of Castellbò and Cerdanya, and also co-sovereigns of Andorra (shared with the Bishop of Urgell).

casanas-bishop-andorra-co-prince.jpg

In the 11th century, a dispute arose between the Bishop of Urgell and the Count of Foix. The conflict was resolved in 1278 with the mediation of Aragon by the signing of the first paréage which provided that Andorra's sovereignty be shared between the count of Foix (whose title would ultimately transfer to the French head of state) and the Bishop of Urgell, in Catalonia. This gave the principality its territory and political form. Over the years, the French co-title to Andorra passed to the kings of Navarre. After Henry of Navarre became King Henry IV of France, he issued an edict in 1607 that established the head of the French state and the Bishop of Urgell as co-princes of Andorra. In 1812-13, the First French Empire annexed Catalonia and divided it in four départements, with Andorra being made part of the district of Puigcerdà (département of Sègre).

principalityofandorra.jpg 

20th Century Andorra

Andorra declared war on Imperial Germany during World War I, but did not actually take part in the fighting. It remained in an official state of belligerency until 1957 as it was not included in the Treaty of Versailles. In 1933, France occupied Andorra as a result of social unrest before elections. On July 12, 1934, adventurer Boris Skossyreff issued a proclamation in Urgell, declaring himself "Boris I, King of Andorra", simultaneously declaring war on the Bishop of Urgell.

borisofandorra.gif 

He was arrested by Spanish authorities on July 20 and ultimately expelled from Spain. From 1936 to 1940, a French detachment was garrisoned in Andorra to prevent influences of the Spanish Civil War and Franco's Spain. Francoist troops reached the Andorran border in the later stages of the war. During World War II, Andorra remained neutral and was an important smuggling route between Vichy France and Spain.

nicolas-sarkozy.jpg

Given its relative isolation, Andorra has existed outside the mainstream of European history, with few ties to countries other than France and Spain. In recent times, however, its thriving tourist industry along with developments in transport and communications have removed the country from its isolation. Its political system was modernised in 1993, when it became a member of the United Nations and the Council of Europe.

 bishopofurgell.jpg

First Sovereign: Joan Enric Vives i Sicília, Bishop of Urgell (Barcelona, Spain, July 24th, 1949). Son of Francesc Vives y Pons and Cornèlia Sicília Ibáñez. Succeeds Joan Martí Alanis, who was co-prince from 1971 to 2003. Co-Prince since: 12 May 2003. 

sarkozy.jpg

Second Sovereign: Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarkozy (Paris, France, January 28th, 1955). Son of Pál Sárközy and Andrée Mallah. Succeeds Jacques Chirac, who was co-prince from 1995 to 2007. Co-Prince since: 16 May 2007. 

 andorramap.gif
The List Co-Princes of Andorra

The Principality of Andorra in the Pyrenees Mountains on the French-Spanish border, was established in 1278 by the Treaty of Joint Suzerainty between the Catalan Bishop of Urgell and the Occitan Count of Foix, whose descendants inherited Navarre in 1479 and then the French Monarchy in 1589. These Princely rights and the Dummvirate have been continued under the executive heads of the various monarchies in France, most recently under the French Republices. Hence even today, France's elected head of state also becomes the Co-Prince of Andorra, the other Co-Prince still being the Bishop of Urgell.

Chateau_de_Foix_Lespinet.JPG 

Episcopal Co-PrinceReignFrench Co-PrinceReign
Bishops of UrgellCounts of Foix
 House of Foix
Pere d'Urtx1278-1293Roger-Bernard III1278-1302
Guillem of Montcada1295-1308
House of Foix-Béarn
Gaston I1302-1315
Ramon Trebaylla1309-1326
Gaston II1315-1343
Arnau de Llordà1326-1341
Pere de Narbona1341-1347
Gaston III Fébus1343-1391
Nicolau Capoci1348-1351
Hugó Desbach1351-1361
Guillem Arnau de Patau1362-1364
Pere de Luna1365-1370
Berenguer d'Erill i de Pallars1371-1388
Galcerand de Vilanova1388-1396
Mathieu1391-1396
First Annexation to Aragon
Andorra was briefly annexed to the Crown of Aragon in 1396.
Bishops of Urgell (restored)Counts of Foix (restored)
House of Foix-Béarn (restored)
Galcerand de Vilanova (restored)1396-1415Mathieu (restored)1396-1398
Isabelle1398-1413
House of Foix-Grailly
Jean I1413-1436
Francesc de Tovia1416-1436
Gaston IV1436-1472
Arnau Roger de Pallars1437-1461
Jaume de Cardona i de Gandia1462-1466
Roderic de Borja i Escrivà1467-1472
Pere de Cardona1472-1512Kings of Navarre
François-Fébus1472-1483
Catherine1483-1512
Second Annexation to Aragon
Andorra was briefly annexed to the Crown of Aragon in 1512-1513.
Bishops of Urgell (restored)Kings of Navarre (restored)
House of Foix-Grailly (restored)
Pere de Cardona (restored)1513-1515Catherine (restored)1513-1517
Joan Despés1515-1530
House of Albret
Henry II1517-1555
Pedro Jordà de Urríes1532-1533
Francesc de Urríes1534-1551
Miquel Despuig1552-1556
Jeanne III1555-1572
Joan Pérez García de Oliván1556-1560
Pere de Castellet1561-1571
Joan Dimas Loris1572-1576 House of Bourbon
Henry III
Henry IV of France
1572-1610
Miquel Jeroni Morell1577-1579
Hugó Ambrós de Montcada1580-1586
Andreu Capella1587-1609
Bernat de Salbà i de Salbà1610-1620Louis II
Louis XIII of France
1610-1620
Luís Díes Aux de Armendáriz1621-1627Kings of France
Louis XIII1620-1643
Antoni Pérez1627-1633
Pau Duran1634-1651
Louis XIV1643-1715
Joan Manuel de Espinosa1655-1663
Melcior Palau i Boscà1664-1670
Pere de Copons i de Teixidor1671-1681
Joan Desbach Martorell1682-1688
Oleguer de Montserrat Rufet1689-1694
Julià Cano Thebar1695-1714
Simeó de Guinda y Apeztegui1714-1737
Louis XV1715-1774
Jordi Curado y Torreblanca1738-1747
Sebastià de Victoria Emparán y Loyola1747-1756
Francesc Josep Catalán de Ocón1757-1762
Francesc Fernández de Xátiva y Contreras1763-1771
Joaquín de Santiyán y Valdivielso1772-1779
Louis XVI1774-1792
Juan de García y Montenegro1780-1783
Josep de Boltas1785-1795
French First Republic
France renounces the position of co-prince.
Francesc Antoni de la Dueña y Cisneros1797-1816
Emperors of the French
 House of Bonaparte
Napoleon I1806-1814
Kings of France (restored)
House of Bourbon (restored)
Louis XVIII1814-1815
Emperors of the French (restored)
House of Bonaparte (restored)
Napoleon I (restored)1815
Napoleon II1815
Bernat Francés y Caballero1817-1824Kings of France (restored)
House of Bourbon (restored)
Louis XVIII (restored)1815-1824
Bonifaci López y Pulido1824-1827Charles X1824-1830
Simó de Guardiola y Hortoneda1827-1851
House of Orléans
Louis Philippe1830-1848
Presidents of the French Second Republic
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte1848-1852
Emperors of the French (restored)
House of Bonaparte (restored)
Napoleon III1852-1870
Josep Caixal i Estradé1853-1879
Presidents of the French Third Republic
Louis-Adolphe Thiers1871-1873
Patrice MacMahon1873-1879
Salvador Casañas i Pagés1879-1901Jules Grévy1879-1887
Sadi Carnot1887-1894
Jean Casimir-Perier1894-1895
Félix Faure1895-1899
Émile Loubet1899-1906
Ramon Riu i Cabanes1901
Toribio Martín (acting)1902
Joan Josep Laguarda i Fenollera1902-1906
Josep Pujargimzú (acting)1907Clément Armand Fallières1906-1913
Juan Benlloch y Vivó1907-1919
Raymond Poincaré1913-1920
Jaume Viladrich i Gaspa (acting)1919-1920
Justí Guitart i Vilardebó1920-1940Paul Deschanel1920
Alexandre Millerand1920-1924
Gaston Doumergue1924-1931
Paul Doumer1931-1932
Albert Lebrun1932-1940
Ricard Fornesa (acting)1940-1943Heads of the French State
Henri Philippe Pétain1940-1944
Ramon Iglesias i Navarri1943-1969
Chairmen of the Provisional Government
Charles de Gaulle1944-1946
Félix Gouin1946
Georges Bidault1946-1947
Presidents of the French Fourth Republic
Vincent Auriol1947-1954
René Coty1954-1959
Presidents of the French Fifth Republic
Charles de Gaulle1959-1969
Ramón Malla Call (acting)1969-1971Georges Pompidou1969-1974
Joan Martí Alanis1971-2003
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing1974-1981
François Mitterrand1981-1995
Jacques Chirac1995-2007
Joan Enric Vives Sicília2003-
Nicolas Sarkozy2007-

Coat of Arms of Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.svg   File:Heraldic Royal Crown of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.svg   Coat of Arms of Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.svg
Official Website of the Almanach de Saxe Gotha
Copyright Held © 1995-2017 - All Rights Reserved
Protected by U.S. and International Copyright Laws
Website Email: information@almanachdegotha.org
 
 

bentley.jpgcartier-cartier.jpgbugatti.gif

This site  The Web