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 Ottoman Empire
Devlet-i Aliye-yi Osmaniyye
 
The Ottoman Empire or Sublime Ottoman State (Ottoman Turkish: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i ʿAliyye-yi ʿOsmâniyye (also عثمانلى دولتى Osmanlı Devleti), Modern Turkish: Osmanlı Devleti or Osmanlı İmparatorluğu) was a Turkish empire which lasted from 27 July 1299 to 29 October 1923.
 
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The Ottoman Empire was one of the largest and longest lasting empires in history; such that the Ottoman State, its politics, conflicts, and cultural heritage in a vast geography provide one of the longest continuous narratives. During the 16th and 17th centuries, in particular at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the empire became the most powerful state in the world - a multinational, multilingual empire that stretched from the southern borders of the Holy Roman Empire to the outskirts of Vienna, Royal Hungary (modern Slovakia) and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the north to Yemen and Eritrea in the south; from Algeria in the west to Azerbaijan in the east; controlling much of southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. The empire contained 29 provinces and numerous vassal states, some of which were later absorbed into the empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.

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With Constantinople (present-day Istanbul, Ottoman Turkish: استنبول, Istanbul and قسطنطينيه, Kostantiniyye) as its capital city, and vast control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the empire was at the center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for over six centuries. After the international recognition of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (GNAT) headquartered in Ankara, by means of the Treaty of Lausanne signed on 24 July 1923, the GNAT proclaimed on 29 October 1923 the establishment of the Republic of Turkey as the new Turkish State that succeeded and formally ended the defunct Ottoman Empire, in line with the treaty. The Ottoman Caliphate was abolished on 3 March 1924 (de jure, the Caliphate's powers and properties were transferred to the GNAT.) 

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The Imperial House of Osman- Osmanoglu

The Osmanli Dynasty traces its origins to Osman Khan Ghazi, founder of the Turkish Empire and son of Ertugrul, leader of the Kayi clan of the Oghuz tribe, during the late 13th century. The tribe reputedly descends from Noah, through his grandson, Oghuz.  The Imperial Ottoman family ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 until the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1922. The rule of one single family, for more than 600 years, over an Empire that was once the most powerful in the world is unique in world history. There were thirty six Ottoman Sultans who ruled over the Empire, and each one was a direct descendant through the male line of the first Ottoman Sultan, Sultan Osman I. The Ottoman dynasty is known in Turkish as Osmanlı, meaning "House of Osman". The first rulers of the dynasty never had called themselves  sultans, but rather beys, or "chieftain", roughly the Turkic equivalent of Emir, which would itself become a gubernatorial title and even a  common military or honorific rank. Thus they still formally acknowledged the sovereignty of the contemporary Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm and its successor, the Ilkhanate.

 
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The first Ottoman to actually claim the title of sultân was Murad I, 
who ruled from 1359 to 1389. The title sultan (سلطان)-in Arabic, was 
in later Arabic-Islamic dynasties originally the power behind the  throne of the Caliph in Bagdad and it was later used for various independent Muslim Monarchs. This title was more prestigious then Emir; it was not comparable to the title of Malik 'king' or the originally Persian title of Shah. With the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the road was open for the Ottoman state to become an empire, with Sultan Mehmed II taking the title of pâdişah (پادشاه), a Persian title meaning "lord of kings" claiming superiority to the other kings, that title was abandoned when the empire declined and lost its might. In addition to such secular titles, the Ottoman sultan became the 
Caliph of Islam, starting with Selim I, who became khalif after  
the death of the last Abbasid Caliph Al-Mutawakkil III, the last of Abbasid Caliphs in Cair.  
 
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After the deposition of the last Sultan, Mehmet VI, in 1922, and the subsequent abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate in 1924, members of the Imperial family were forced into exile. Their descendants now live in many different countries throughout Europe, as well as in the USA, the Middle East, and since they have now been permitted to return to their homeland, many now also live in Turkey. When in exile, the family adopted the surname of Osmanoğlu, meaning son of Osman, out of respect for the founder of their dynasty. It was announced in 2010 that members of the Ottoman dynasty are working to create a foundation with the goal of uniting the family and helping the ones living abroad to connect with their Turkish heritage. 

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Heads of the House of Osman since 1922

The Ottoman dynasty was exiled from Turkey in 1924. The female members of the dynasty were allowed to return after 1951, and the male members after 1973.  Below is a list of people who would have been heirs to the Ottoman throne following the abolition of the sultanate on 1 November 1922. These people have not necessarily made any claim to the throne; for example Ertuğrul Osman said "Democracy works well in Turkey."

  • Mehmed VI, last Ottoman Sultan (1918-1922) then 36th Head of the House of Osman in exile (1922-1926).
  • Abdülmecid II, last Ottoman Caliph (1922-1924) then 37th Head of the House of Osman following Mehmed VI's death (1926-1944).
  • Ahmed IV Nihad, 38th Head of the House of Osman (1944-1954), grandson of Sultan Murad V.
  • Osman IV Fuad, 39th Head of the House of Osman (1954-1973), brother of Ahmed IV Nihad, and grandson of SultanMurad V.
  • (Mehmed) Abdülaziz II, 40th Head of the House of Osman (1973-1977), grandson of Sultan Abdülaziz I.
  • Ali I Vâsib, 41st Head of the House of Osman (1977-1983), son of Ahmed IV Nihad, and great-grandson of Sultan Murad V.
  • (Mehmed) Orhan II, 42nd Head of the House of Osman (1983-1994), grandson of Sultan Abdul Hamid II.
  • Ertuğrul Osman V, 43rd Head of the House of Osman (1994-2009), grandson of Sultan Abdul Hamid II.
  • (Osman) Bayezid III, 44th Head of the House of Osman (2009-present), great-grandson of Sultan Abdülmecid I.

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Resurgence of interest in the Ottoman Dynasty

Since the turn of this century there has been a growing interest in the living members of the Ottoman family, both within Turkey and abroad. In 2006, family members met at Dolmabahçe Palace for the presentation of the documentary "Osmanoğlu'nun Exile" produced by TRT (Turkish Radio and Television Corporation). This documentary followed the stories of the members of the Ottoman family who went into exile in 1924, following the establishment of the Turkish Republic and the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate. It then follows the stories of their descendants, who now live in Turkey, Europe, the United States and throughout the Middle East. Extensive coverage of this event, and the success of the documentary series has dramatically raised the profile of the Imperial Family. The outpouring of affection shown by the Turkish people at the funeral of H.I.H Prince Ertuğrul Osman Efendi in September 2009 revealed how deep feeling still runs for the Imperial family.

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Turkish Citizenship

Without any exception, all members of the Imperial Ottoman family were exiled in 1924. Most had never left their homeland before, and all were forced to make a new life abroad. The family departed from Sirkeci Train Station, and would disperse across Europe, the United States and the Middle East. As the former Ottoman Sultan, H.I.M. Sultan Mehmed VI Vahideddin, had settled in San Remo, many members of the family congregated to the South of France. After living in Switzerland for a short time, the last Caliph of Islam H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Abdulmecid II, also moved to Nice. The travel documents issued by the Turkish Republic to the Ottoman family on their exile were only valid for one year. Therefore, by 1925 members of the family were no longer able to travel, and it was due to the intervention of H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Ali Vâsib Efendi that the family received courtesy passports from the French Government. The French Government also issued passports to the children of the members of the family who were born in exile. Today many members of the Ottoman family have now obtained Turkish citizenship, and hold Turkish passports.

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Imperial Princes (Şehzades) of the House of Osman

The formal way of addressing the male descendants of the Ottoman Sultans is Daulatlu Najabatlu Şehzade (given name) Hazretleri Efendi, i.e. Prince (given name) Efendi, with the style of His Imperial Highness. According to genealogies of the House of Osman, had the Sultanate not been abolished, there are twenty-four Imperial Princes in the line of succession after Bayezid Osman, the current head of the family. They are listed as follows; the succession law used is agnatic seniority, with the succession passing to eldest male dynast.

  1. HIH Prince Şehzade Dündar Aliosman Efendi (b. 1930) (descendant of Abdul Hamid II)
  2. HIH Prince Şehzade Harun Osmanoğlu Efendi (b. 1932) (descendant of Abdul Hamid II)
  3. HIH Prince Şehzade Cengiz Nazim Efendi (b. 1939) (descendant of Mehmed V)
  4. HIH Prince Şehzade Osman Selaheddin Osmanoğlu Efendi (b. 1940) (descendant of Murad V through Ahmed IV and Ali I, and of Mehmed V through Ömer Hilmi)
  5. HIH Prince Şehzade Ömer Abdülmecid Osmanoğlu Efendi (b. 1941) (descendant of Mehmed V through Ömer Hilmi andMahmud Namık)
  6. HIH Prince Şehzade Mehmed Selim Orhan Efendi (1943) Abdul Hamid II)
  7. HIH Prince Şehzade Mehmed Ziyaeddin Efendi (b. 1947) (descendant of Mehmed V)
  8. HIH Prince Şehzade Roland Selim Kadir Efendi (b. 1949) (descendant of Abdul Hamid II)
  9. HIH Prince Şehzade Selim Djem Efendi (b. 1955) (descendant of Abdülmecid I)
  10. HIH Prince Şehzade Orhan İbrahim Suleiman Saadeddin Efendi (b. 1959) (descendant of Abdülaziz I)
  11. HIH Prince Şehzade Orhan Osmanoğlu Efendi (b. 1963) (descendant of Abdul Hamid II)
  12. HIH Prince Şehzade Eric Mehmed Ziyaeddin Nazim Efendi (b. 1966) (descendant of Mehmed V)
  13. HIH Prince Şehzade Orhan Murad Osmanoğlu Efendi (b. 1972) (descendant of Murad V through Ahmed IV and Ali I, and of Mehmed V through Ömer Hilmi)
  14. HIH Prince Şehzade Francis Mahmud Namık Osmanoğlu Efendi (b. 1975) (descendant of Mehmed V through Ömer Hilmiand Mahmud Namık)
  15. HIH Prince Şehzade René Osman Abdul Kadir Efendi (b. 1975) (descendant of Abdul Hamid II)
  16. HIH Prince Şehzade Daniel Adrian Hamid Kadir Efendi (b. 1977) (descendant of Abdul Hamid II)
  17. HIH Prince Şehzade Abdulhamid Kayıhan Osmanoğlu Efendi (b. 1979) (descendant of Abdul Hamid II)
  18. HIH Prince Şehzade Selim Süleyman Osmanoğlu Efendi (b. 1979) (descendant of Murad V through Ahmed IV and Ali I, and of Mehmed V through Ömer Hilmi)
  19. HIH Prince Şehzade Nazım Osmanoğlu Efendi (b. 1985) (descendant of Mehmed V)
  20. HIH Prince Şehzade Yavuz Selim Osmanoğlu Efendi (b. 1989) (descendant of Abdul Hamid II)
  21. HIH Prince Şehzade Turan Cem Osmanoğlu Efendi (b. 2004) (descendant of Murad V through Ahmed IV and Ali I)
  22. HIH Prince Şehzade Tamer Nihad Osmanoğlu Efendi (b. 2006) (descendant of Murad V through Ahmed IV and Ali I)
  23. HIH Prince Şehzade Harun Osmanoğlu Efendi (b. 2007) (descendant of Abdul Hamid II)
  24. HIH Prince Şehzade Batu Bayezid Osmanoğlu Efendi (b. 2008) (descendant of Murad V through Ahmed IV and Ali I)

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Imperial Princesses (Sultans) of the House of Osman

The formal way of addressing the female descendants of the Ottoman Sultans is Daulatlu Hazretleri (given name) Sultan, i.e. Princess (given name) Sultan, with the style of Her Imperial Highness. According to genealogies of the House of Osman, had the Sultanate not been abolished, there are seventeen Imperial Princesses.

  1. HIH Princess Fatma Neslişah Sultan (b. 1921) (descendant of Caliph Abdülmecid II, and of Mehmed V)• Children: Sultanzade HRH Prince Abbas Hilmi Beyefendi 1941, HRH Princess İkbal Hanımsultan 1944
  2. HIH Princess Safvet Neslişah Sultan (b. 1925) (descendant of Mehmed V) • Children: Sultanzade HH Prince Salih Beyefendi 1955, Sultanzade HH Prince Ömer Beyefendi 1959
  3. HIH Princess Fevziye Sultan (b. 1928) (descendant of Mehmed V)
  4. HIH Princess Fatma Necla Sultan (b. 1933) (descendant of Mehmed V) • Children: Sultanzade HH Prince Mehmed Erol Beyefendi 1954, Sultanzade HH Prince Osman Cem Beyefendi 1963
  5. HIH Princess Margot Leyla Sultan (b. 1947) (descendant of Mehmed V) • Children: HH Princess Katharina Alia Hanımsultan 1980
  6. HIH Princess Iskra Sultan (b. 1949) (descendant of Mehmed V) • Child: HH Princess Andrea Hanımsultan 1974
  7. HIH Princess Nilüfer Sultan (b. 1953) (descendant of Mehmed V)
  8. HIH Princess Perihan Sultan (b. 1963) (descendant of Abdülaziz)
  9. HIH Princess Ayşe Louise Sultan (b. 1964) (descendant of Mehmed V)[• Children: HH Princess Peri Kathleen Hanımsultan 1994, Sultanzade HH Prince Zekeriya James Beyefendi 1996
  10. HIH Princess Gülhan Sultan (b. 1968) (descendant of Abdülaziz)
  11. HIH Princess Ayşe Gülnev Sultan (b. 1971) (descendant of Murad V through Ahmed IV and Ali I, and of Mehmed Vthrough Ömer Hilmi)• Children: Sultanzade HH Prince Maximilian Ali Beyefendi 2000, Sultanzade HH Prince Cosmo Tarık Beyefendi 2001, Sultanzade HH Prince Lysander Cengiz Beyefendi 2003, HH Princess Tatyana Aliye Hanımsultan 2005, Sultanzade HH Prince Ferdinand Ziya Beyefendi 2006
  12. HIH Princess Nurhan Sultan (b. 1973) • Children: Sultanzade HH Prince Muhammed Halil Beyefendi 2002, HH Princess Sara Hanımsultan 2004
  13. HIH Princess Nilhan Sultan (b. 1987) (descendant of Abdul Hamid II)
  14. HIH Princess Nermin Zoe Sultan (b. 1988) (descendant of Mehmed V)
  15. HIH Princess Nilüfer Sultan (b. 1995) (descendant of Mehmed V)
  16. HIH Princess Berna Sultan (b. 1998) (descendant of Abdul Hamid II)
  17. HIH Princess Asyahan Sultan (b. 2004) (descendant of Abdul Hamid II) 
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Biographies of Members of the House of Osman

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H.I.H. Prince Orhan Murad Efendi

Orhan Murad Osmanoğlu (H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Orhan Murad Efendi) born in Henley-on-Thames, Oxon, England on 26 December 1972, eldest son of H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Osman Selaheddin Osmanoğlu and his wife H.H. Athena Joy Hanımefendi. (b. at London, 9 March 1944), née, Christoforides. He is the great-great-great-grand-son of H.I.M. Sultan Murad V, 33rd Sovereign of the House of Osman through his grandfather H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Ali Vasıb Efendi, 41st Head of the Imperial House of Osman, and also the great-great-grand-son of H.I.M. Sultan Mehmed V Reşad Han Gazi, 35th Sovereign of the House of Osman, through his grandmother H.I.H. Princess Emine Mükbile Sultan. His father H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Osman Selaheddin Efendi, is the only Ottoman prince whose parents are both descendants of the Imperial Ottoman dynasty. educ. Degree in Business and Economics at Kingston Univ. H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Orhan Murad Efendi lives in Buckinghamshire with his family, and works for a property investment and development company.

Prince Orhan married on 17 February 2000, H.H. Patricia Emine Hanımefendi née, Iotti, and has issue, two sons:

H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Turan Cem Efendi. born at High Wycombe, England, 7 January 2004

H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Tamer Nihad Efendi. born at High Wycombe, England, 15 April 2006.

H.I.H. Prince Selim Süleyman Osmanoğlu Efendi

H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Selim Süleyman Osmanoğlu Efendi. born at High Wycombe, England , 15 December 1979. educ. Degree in Business Studies at Kingston University, London and Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Insurance, a Chartered Insurance Broker and a Member of the Institute of Risk Management. m. at İstanbul, 22 June 2003, H.H. Alev Hanımefendi, née, Öcal. educ. Boğaziçi University, İstanbul. He has issue, one son: i) H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Batu Bayezid Efendi. born at Sidcup, England, 23 April 2008.

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H.I.H. Prince Mahmud Namık Efendi

Prince Mahmud Namık Efendi (December 23, 1913; Dolmabahçe Palace-), is the only son of Prince Ömer Hilmi Efendi, and his wife H.H. Hadice Firdevs Gülnev Başhanımefendi, and grand-son of Sultan Mehmed V. He received the Collar of the Hanedan-ı-Ali-Osman. Mahmud Namık Effendi was born in Dolmabahçe Palace and lived there until the death of his grandfather, Sultan Mehmed V, just before the end of World War I on July 4, 1918. He then moved with his family to a Konak (residence) at Nişantaşı for the winter months and to one in Bağlarbaşı, above Beylerbeyi, for the summer.

Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey and the abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate and the Ottoman Caliphate, the entire Imperial Ottoman family were forced into exile in March 1924. Mahmud Namık left his homeland at the age of 10, never to return to Turkey, since he died before the decree of exile was lifted. He was initially sent to boarding school in Lebanon, but then soon came to live with his family in Nice, France once they had settled there to be close to the former Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI, who had rented a villa in San Remo, and to their cousin the last Caliph of Islam Abdülmecid II, who lived in Nice. In 1934 he moved to Alexandria, Egypt with his father, Prince Ömer Hilmi Efendi, and grandmother, and was later joined in January by his sister, Princess Emine Mükbile, and his brother-in-law, Prince Ali Vâsib Efendi. He worked until the end of World War II for the Alexandria tramline company. In the late 1940s he established himself as a successful businessman and settled in Geneva, Switzerland where he developed his business interests in places as far apart as Pakistan and the USA. In 1958 he was asked to help negotiate the marriage of his cousin Princess Sabiha Fazila Hanimsultan, the only daughter of Prince Muhammad 'Ali Ibrahim Beyefendi of Egypt and Princess Zehra Hanzade Sultan, to King Faisal II of Iraq. The engagement was brutally brought to an end by the murder of King Faisal II, following a military coup on July 14, 1958. Mahmud Namık had a passion for music and in particular very much enjoyed playing the Spanish guitar. He died at the age of 49 from a stroke, at Cairo, Egypt on November 13, 1963 and buried at Khedive Tawfik Mausoleum (Cairo), then transferred to Sultan Mahmud II Mausoleum (Istanbul) in 1987.

He married on August 1939 (div. at Alexandria, 1947) Şaharazade Hanımefendi (b. at Alexandria, 1922; d. 1993), only daughter of Ismail Ratib Bey, by his wife Princess Emine Bihruz, younger daughter of Prince Ibrahim Rashid Fazil Pasha, of Egypt. They had issue, an only son:

H.I.H. Prince Ömer Abdülmecid Osmanoğlu b. at Alexandria, 4 June 1941, educ. Stowe school, Buckinghamshire, England, and degree in Business Administration from London Univ.

H.I.H. Prince Ömer Abdülmecid Osmanoğlu

H.I.H. Prince Ömer Abdülmecid b. at Alexandria, 4 June 1941, the only child of H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Mahmud Namık Efendi, and his wife H.H. Şaharazade Hanımefendi, (b. at Alexandria, 1922; d. 1993, only daughter of Ismail Ratib Bey, by his wife H.R.H. Princess Emine Bihruz, younger daughter of H.R.H. Prince Ibrahim Raşid Fazıl Paşa, of Egypt), and great-grandson of H.I.M. Sultan Mehmed V Reşad Han Gazi , 35th Sovereign of the House of Osman. educ. Stowe School, Buckinghamshire, England, and degree in Business Administration from London Univ. m. Beulah Hanımefendi (b. 8 April 1943), née Banbury. He has issue, an only son:

H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Mahmud Namık Osmanoğlu born in London, 27 April 1975, educ. MFA in Design and Technology from Parsons The New School for Design, New York City, USA. He is a co-founder and director of Streaming Well an online health channel, he lives in England.

H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Ömer Abdülmecid Efendi had a career as an oil trader in the City of London, is an accomplished chess player and is now retired and lives in Sussex, England.

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H.I.H. Prince Mahmud Francis Namık Efendi

H.I.H. Prince Mahmud Francis Namık Efendi was born in London at what is now the Lanesborough Hotel on 27 April 1975. He is the only child of H.I.H. Prince (Şehzade) Ömer Abdülmecid Osmanoğlu Efendi, and Beulah Hanımefendi, née Banbury, and great-great grandson of H.I.M. Sultan Mehmed V Reşad Han Gazi , 35th Sovereign of the House of Osman. Prince Mahmud earned an MFA in Design and Technology from Parsons The New School for Design, New York City, USA and a BFA in Visual Communications from Parsons Paris School of Art and Design, Paris, France. He is a co-founder and director of Streaming Well an online health channel, he lives in England.

He attended Gulliver Preparatory High School in Miami Florida, and The Mougins School, in the South of France (Riviera). He is an accomplished drummer with rock group The Janitors and they released their first LP "Sweeping the Nation" in 2010. He is also an avid tennis player. Prince Mahmud Efendi was the subject of an interview by the Anatolian News Agency which was picked up for publication in a number of outlets in both Turkey and the UK. A Sultan's descendant in the heart of London. 

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 List of Sultans of the Ottoman Empire

The table below lists Ottoman sultans, as well as the last Ottoman caliph, in chronological order. The "Notes" column contains information on each sultan's parentage and fate. When a sultan's reign did not end through a natural death, the reason is indicated in bold. For earlier rulers, there is usually a time gap between the moment a sultan's reign ended and the moment his successor was enthroned. This is because the Ottomans in that era practiced what historian Quataert has described as "survival of the fittest, not eldest, son": when a sultan died, his sons had to fight each other for the throne until a victor emerged. Because of the infighting and numerous fratricides that occurred, a sultan's death date therefore did not always coincide with the accession date of his successor. In 1617, the law of succession changed from survival of the fittest to a system based on agnatic seniority (ekberiyet), whereby the throne went to the oldest male of the family. This in turn explains why from the 17th century onwards a deceased sultan was rarely succeeded by his own son, but usually by an uncle or brother. Agnatic seniority was retained until the abolition of the sultanate, despite unsuccessful attempts in the 19th century to replace it with primogeniture.

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SultanPortraitReigned fromReigned untilNotes
Osman I
GHAZI (The Warrior)
BEY (The Esquire)
KARA (lit. The Land or The Black) for his bravery
 c. 1299c. 1324
  • Son of ErtuğrulGhazi;
  • Reigned until his death.
Orhan I
GHAZI (The Warrior)
BEY (The Esquire)
Portrait of Orhanc. 1324c. 1361
  • Son of Osman I andMal Hatun;
  • Reigned until his death.
Murad I
HÜDAVENDİGÂR -Khodāvandgār -

(The God-like One)
(Sultan since 1383)

 c. 13601389
  • Son of Orhan I andNilüfer Hatun;
  • Reigned until his death;
  • Killed on the battlefield at theBattle of Kosovo.
Bayezid I
YILDIRIM (The Thunderbolt)
 13891402
  • Son of Murad I andGülçiçek Hatun;
  • Captured on the battlefield at theBattle of Ankara(de facto end of reign);
  • Died in captivity inAkşehir on 8 March 1403.
Ottoman Interregnum - 1402-1413
Mehmed I
ÇELEBİ (The Affable)
KİRİŞÇİ (lit. The Bowstring Maker) for his support
 14131421
  • Son of Bayezid I and Devlet Hatun;
  • Reigned until his death.
Murad II
KOCA (The Great)
Portrait of Murad II by John Young14211444
  • Son of Mehmed I and Emine Hatun;
  • Abdicated of his own free will in favour of his sonMehmed II.
Mehmed II
FATİH (The Conqueror)
14441446
  • Son of Murad II andHüma Hatun;
  • Surrendered the throne to his father after having asked him to return to power.
Murad II
KOCA (The Great)
Portrait of Murad II by John Young14463 February 1451
  • Second reign;
  • Forced to return to the throne following a Janissaryinsurgence;
  • Reigned until his death.
Mehmed II
FATİH (The Conqueror)
3 February 14513 May 1481
  • Second reign;
  • Conquered Constantinople in 1453;
  • Reigned until his death.
Bayezid II
VELÎ (The Saint)
Portrait of Bayezid II by John Young19 May 148125 April 1512
  • Son of Mehmed II and Mûkrîmā (Sitti Mükrime) Khātûn;
  • Abdicated;
  • Died nearDidymoteicho on 26 May 1512.
Selim I
YAVUZ (The Stern)
(Caliph Of Muslims Since 1517)
Portrait of Selim I by John Young25 April 151221 September 1520
  • Son of Bayezid II and Gül-Bahār Sultan;
  • Reigned until his death.
Suleiman I
MUHTEŞEM (The Magnificent)

or KANÛNÎ (The Lawgiver)

Portrait of Suleiman the Magnificent by Nakkaş Osman30 September 15206 or 7 September 1566
  • Son of Selim I andAyışā Hâfize (Ayşe Hafsa) Valide Sultan;
  • Reigned until his death.
Selim II
SARI (The Yellow-The Blond)
 29 September 156621 December 1574
  • Son of Suleiman I and Hürrem (Khurram or Karima) Haseki Sultan, خرم سلطان;
  • Reigned until his death.
Murad III 22 December 157416 January 1595
  • Son of Selim II andAfife Nur-Banû Valide Sultan;
  • Reigned until his death.
Mehmed III
ADLÎ (The Just)
Portrait of Mehmed III by John Young27 January 159520 or 21 December 1603
  • Son of Murad III andSafiye Valide Sultan;
  • Reigned until his death;
Ahmed I
BAKHTÎ (The Fortunate)
Portrait of Ahmed I by John Young21 December 160322 November 1617
  • Son of Mehmed III and Handan Valide Sultan;
  • Reigned until his death.
Mustafa I
DELİ (The Intestable)
Portrait of Mustafa I by John Young22 November 161726 February 1618
  • Son of Mehmed III and an unknown woman;
  • Deposed due to hisnon-syndromic mental retardationin favour of his young nephew Osman II.
Osman II
GENÇ (The Young)
Portrait of Osman II by John Young26 February 161819 May 1622
  • Son of Ahmed I andMâh-Firûze Hatice (Khadija) Valide Sultan;
  • Deposed in aJanissary riot on 19 May 1622;
  • Murdered on 20 May 1622 by theGrand Vizier Kara Davud Paşa (Black Da'ud Pasha) from compression of his testicles.
Mustafa I
DELİ (The Intestable)
Portrait of Mustafa I by John Young20 May 162210 September 1623
  • Second reign;
  • Returned to the throne after the assassination of his nephew Osman II;
  • Deposed due to hissyndromic mental retardation and confined until his death in Istanbul on 20 January 1639.
Murad IV
GHAZI (The Warrior)
Portrait of Murad IV by John Young10 September 16238 or 9 February 1640
  • Son of Ahmed I andMâh-Peyker Kösem Valide Sultan;
  • Reigned until his death.
Ibrahim I
DELİ (The Arrage)
 9 February 16408 August 1648
  • Son of Ahmed I andMâh-Peyker Kösem Valide Sultan;
  • Deposed on 8 August 1648 in acoup led by theSheikh ul-Islam;
  • Strangled inIstanbul on 18 August 1648 at the behest of theGrand VizierMevlevî Mehmed Paşa (Sofu Mehmed Pasha).
Mehmed IV
AVCI (The Hunter)
 8 August 16488 November 1687
  • Son of Ibrahim I andTurhan Hatice (Khadija) Valide Sultan;
  • Deposed on 8 November 1687 following the Ottoman defeat at the Second Battle of Mohács;
  • Died in Edirne on 6 January 1693.
Suleiman II 8 November 168722 June 1691
  • Son of Ibrahim I andSaliha Dilâşub Valide Sultan;
  • Reigned until his death.
Ahmed II
KHAN GHAZI (The Warrior Prince)
Portrait of Ahmed II by John Young22 June 16916 February 1695
  • Son of Ibrahim I andHatice (Khadija) Muazzez Sultan;
  • Reigned until his death.
Mustafa II
GHAZI (The Warrior)
 6 February 169522 August 1703
  • Son of Mehmed IV and Mâh-Pârā Ummatullah (Emetullah) Râbi'a Gül-Nûş Valide Sultan;
  • Deposed on 22 August 1703 by reason of theJanissary uprising known as theEdirne Event;
  • Died in Istanbul on 8 January 1704.
Ahmed IIIPortrait of Ahmed III by John Young22 August 17031 or 2 October 1730
  • Son of Mehmed IV and Mâh-Pârā Ummatullah (Emetullah) Râbi'a Gül-Nûş Valide Sultan;
  • Deposed in consequence of the Janissaryrebellion led byPatrona Halil;
  • Died on 1 July 1736.
Mahmud I
GHAZI (The Warrior)
KAMBUR (The Hunchback)
 2 October 173013 December 1754
  • Son of Mustafa II and Saliha Sebkati Valide Sultan;
  • Reigned until his death.
Osman III
SOFU (The Devout)
Portrait of Osman III by John Young13 December 175429 or 30 October 1757
  • Son of Mustafa II and Şehsuvar Valide Sultan;
  • Reigned until his death.
Mustafa III
YENİLİKÇİ (The First Innovative)
Portrait of Mustafa III by John Young30 October 175721 January 1774
  • Son of Ahmed III and Âminā (Emine) Mihr-î-Mâh Sultan;
  • Reigned until his death.
Abdülhamid I
The Servant of God
 21 January 17746 or 7 April 1789
  • Son of Ahmed III and Râbi'a Sharmi Sultan, رابعه سلطان;
  • Reigned until his death.
Selim III
BESTEKÂR (The Composer)
Portrait of Selim III by Konstantin Kapidagli7 April 178929 May 1807
  • Son of Mustafa III and Mihr-î-Şah Valide Sultan;
  • Deposed as a result of theJanissary revolt led by Kabakçı Mustafaagainst his reforms;
  • Assassinated in Istanbul on 28 July 1808 at the behest of Ottoman Sultan Mustafa IV.
Mustafa IV 29 May 180728 July 1808
  • Son of Abdülhamid I and Ayishā Sinā Pervar (Ayşe Seniyeperver) Valide Sultan;
  • Deposed in aninsurrection led byAlemdar Mustafa Pasha;
  • Executed in Istanbul on 17 November 1808 by order of Ottoman SultanMahmud II.
Mahmud II
ISLAHÂTÇI (The Reformer)
Portrait of Mahmud II by John Young28 July 18081 July 1839
  • Son of Abdülhamid I and Nakş-î-Dîl Haseki Valide Sultan (adoptive mother of Mahmud II);
  • Disbanded theJanissaries in consequence of the Auspicious Event in 1826;
  • Reigned until his death.
Abdülmecid I
TANZİMÂTÇI (The Strong Reformist or The Advocate of Reorganization)
Portrait of Abdülmecid I1 July 183925 June 1861
  • Son of Mahmud II and Bezm-î-Âlem Valide Sultan;
  • Proclaimed the Hatt-ı Sharif (Imperial Edict) of Gülhane(Tanzimât Fermânı) that launched theTanzimat period of reforms and reorganization on 3 November 1839 at the behest of reformist Grand Vizier Great Mustafa Rashid Pasha;
  • Accepted theIslâhat Hatt-ı Hümayun (Imperial Reform Edict)(Islâhat Fermânı)on 18 February 1856;
  • Reigned until his death.
Abdülaziz I 25 June 186130 May 1876
  • Son of Mahmud II and Pertav-Nihâl (Pertevniyal) Valide Sultan;
  • Deposed by his ministers;
  • Found dead (suicide or murder) five days later.
Murad V
 30 May 187631 August 1876
  • Son of Abdülmecid I and Şevkefza Valide Sultan;
  • Deposed due to his efforts to implement democratic reforms in the empire;
  • Ordered to reside inÇırağan Palacewhere he died on 29 August 1904.
Abdülhamid II
ULU HAN

(The Sublime Khan)

Portrait of Abdülhamid II31 August 187627 April 1909
  • Son of Abdülmecid I and Tîr-î-Müjgan Kadınefendi; and later the adoptive son of Rahîme Pirîstû (Perestû) Valide Sultan(adoptive mother ofAbdul Hamid II).
  • Established the First Constitutional Rule on 23 November 1876 and then suspended on 13 February 1878;
  • Restored the Second Constitutional Ruleon 3 July 1908;
  • Deposed after the31 March Incident(on 13 April 1909);
  • Confined toBeylerbeyi Palacewhere he died on 10 February 1918.
Mehmed V
REŞÂD

(The True Path Follower)

 27 April 19093 July 1918
  • Son of Abdülmecid I and Gül-Cemâl Kadınefendi;
  • Reigned as afigurehead ofMehmed Talât,İsmail Enver, andAhmed Cemal(Djemal) Pashasuntil his death.
Mehmed VI
VÂHİD-ÜD-DÎN

(The Unifier of Religion (Islam) or The Oneness of Islam)

 4 July 19181 November 1922
  • Son of Abdülmecid I and Gülistan Münire Kadınefendi;
  • Sultanateabolished;
  • Left Istanbul on 17 November 1922;
  • Died in exile inSanremo, Italy on 16 May 1926.
Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire - 1922-1923
Abdülmecid II
HALİFE

(The Last Ottoman Caliph Of Islam)

Portrait of Abdülmecid II18 November 19223 March 1924
  • Son of Abdülaziz I and Hayran-î-Dil Kadınefendi;
  • Elected caliph by the TBMM;
  • Exiled after the abolition of thecaliphate;
  • Died in Paris,France on 23 August 1944.

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